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Upper airway changes in Pierre Robin sequence from childhood to adulthood.
Orthod Craniofac Res. 2013 Nov; 16(4):202-13.OC

Abstract

OBJECTIVES

To investigate pharyngeal airway changes in patients with Pierre Robin sequence (PRS) longitudinally from childhood to adulthood.

SETTING AND SAMPLE POPULATION

Cleft Lip and Palate Unit, Clinic of Orthodontics, University of Zurich. Twenty-four patients born between 1970 and 1990 with non-syndromic PRS.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Lateral cephalograms at age 5 (T1), 10 (T2), 15 (T3) and 20 (T4) years were available. Variables describing pharyngeal airway dimensions, soft palate morphology, tongue and hyoid position, skeletal morphology and head posture were assessed.

RESULTS

A significant increase in nasopharyngeal depth was found over the entire observation period (T1 10.7 to T4 19.1 mm, p < 0.001), especially between T2 and T3 (change 3.8 mm, p < 0.001), and was mainly due to adenoid recession (r = -0.75, p < 0.001; variation explained by 56%). Increase in velopharyngeal depth mainly took place between T3 and T4 (change 2.3 mm, p < 0.01). It was due to more anterior tongue posture (r = 0.65, p < 0.001; 42.5% of variation explained), in turn allowing the soft palate to take a more vertical position (r = -0.52, p < 0.001). Increase in oropharyngeal depth was associated with head extension and anterior mandibular positioning (36% of variation explained). However, significance was not reached (T1 8.3 to T4 9.8 mm, p > 0.05).

CONCLUSIONS

Upper airway dimensions in children with PRS improve with time, except for the oropharyngeal airway. Despite large interindividual variation, the mean remained in the lower reaches of normality described in other studies. Thus, further research should investigate the prevalence of obstructive sleep apnoea in adults with PRS.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Cleft Lip and Palate Unit, Clinic of Orthodontics and Pediatric Dentistry, Center of Dental Medicine, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

23350818

Citation

Staudt, C B., et al. "Upper Airway Changes in Pierre Robin Sequence From Childhood to Adulthood." Orthodontics & Craniofacial Research, vol. 16, no. 4, 2013, pp. 202-13.
Staudt CB, Gnoinski WM, Peltomäki T. Upper airway changes in Pierre Robin sequence from childhood to adulthood. Orthod Craniofac Res. 2013;16(4):202-13.
Staudt, C. B., Gnoinski, W. M., & Peltomäki, T. (2013). Upper airway changes in Pierre Robin sequence from childhood to adulthood. Orthodontics & Craniofacial Research, 16(4), 202-13. https://doi.org/10.1111/ocr.12019
Staudt CB, Gnoinski WM, Peltomäki T. Upper Airway Changes in Pierre Robin Sequence From Childhood to Adulthood. Orthod Craniofac Res. 2013;16(4):202-13. PubMed PMID: 23350818.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Upper airway changes in Pierre Robin sequence from childhood to adulthood. AU - Staudt,C B, AU - Gnoinski,W M, AU - Peltomäki,T, Y1 - 2013/01/28/ PY - 2012/12/30/accepted PY - 2013/1/29/entrez PY - 2013/1/29/pubmed PY - 2014/8/30/medline KW - Pierre Robin sequence KW - airway KW - cephalometry KW - child KW - longitudinal SP - 202 EP - 13 JF - Orthodontics & craniofacial research JO - Orthod Craniofac Res VL - 16 IS - 4 N2 - OBJECTIVES: To investigate pharyngeal airway changes in patients with Pierre Robin sequence (PRS) longitudinally from childhood to adulthood. SETTING AND SAMPLE POPULATION: Cleft Lip and Palate Unit, Clinic of Orthodontics, University of Zurich. Twenty-four patients born between 1970 and 1990 with non-syndromic PRS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Lateral cephalograms at age 5 (T1), 10 (T2), 15 (T3) and 20 (T4) years were available. Variables describing pharyngeal airway dimensions, soft palate morphology, tongue and hyoid position, skeletal morphology and head posture were assessed. RESULTS: A significant increase in nasopharyngeal depth was found over the entire observation period (T1 10.7 to T4 19.1 mm, p < 0.001), especially between T2 and T3 (change 3.8 mm, p < 0.001), and was mainly due to adenoid recession (r = -0.75, p < 0.001; variation explained by 56%). Increase in velopharyngeal depth mainly took place between T3 and T4 (change 2.3 mm, p < 0.01). It was due to more anterior tongue posture (r = 0.65, p < 0.001; 42.5% of variation explained), in turn allowing the soft palate to take a more vertical position (r = -0.52, p < 0.001). Increase in oropharyngeal depth was associated with head extension and anterior mandibular positioning (36% of variation explained). However, significance was not reached (T1 8.3 to T4 9.8 mm, p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Upper airway dimensions in children with PRS improve with time, except for the oropharyngeal airway. Despite large interindividual variation, the mean remained in the lower reaches of normality described in other studies. Thus, further research should investigate the prevalence of obstructive sleep apnoea in adults with PRS. SN - 1601-6343 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/23350818/Upper_airway_changes_in_Pierre_Robin_sequence_from_childhood_to_adulthood_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1111/ocr.12019 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -