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Tobacco and alcohol as risk factors in cancer of the larynx in Kerala, India.

Abstract

A case-control study of cancer of the larynx was carried out in Kerala, Southern India, on 191 male cancer cases and 549 male hospital-based controls. Risk factors investigated were pan(betel)-tobacco chewing, bidi and cigarette smoking, drinking alcohol and inhaling snuff. Significant positive associations with risk were observed for bidi smoking (p less than 0.001), bidi and cigarette smoking (p less than 0.001) and drinking alcohol (p less than 0.001). A predisposing effect of smoking cigarettes alone approached significance (0.1 less than p less than 0.05). What appeared to be an almost significant protective effect of pan-tobacco chewing (0.1 less than p less than 0.05) was found to be an artefact of confounding with smoking, and indeed a significant predisposing effect was observed of occasional chewing (p less than 0.001). After a stepwise logistic regression to eliminate those factors which were not significant when adjusted for other factors, significant effects remained of durations of bidi smoking and cigarette smoking, daily frequency of bidi and cigarette smoking and duration of alcohol drinking. Relative risks of 7.12, 5.18 and 2.58 were observed for durations of more than 20 years of bidi smoking, cigarette smoking and drinking alcohol respectively, and a relative risk of 12.68 was observed for those smoking more than 20 bidis/cigarettes per day, in each case relative to a baseline of those negative for the relevant habit.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    MRC Biostatistics Unit, Cambridge, UK.

    , , ,

    Source

    International journal of cancer 45:5 1990 May 15 pg 879-82

    MeSH

    Adult
    Age Factors
    Aged
    Alcohol Drinking
    Carcinoma, Squamous Cell
    Case-Control Studies
    Humans
    India
    Laryngeal Neoplasms
    Male
    Middle Aged
    Plants, Toxic
    Religion
    Risk Factors
    Smoking
    Tobacco
    Tobacco, Smokeless

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    2335391

    Citation

    Sankaranarayanan, R, et al. "Tobacco and Alcohol as Risk Factors in Cancer of the Larynx in Kerala, India." International Journal of Cancer, vol. 45, no. 5, 1990, pp. 879-82.
    Sankaranarayanan R, Duffy SW, Nair MK, et al. Tobacco and alcohol as risk factors in cancer of the larynx in Kerala, India. Int J Cancer. 1990;45(5):879-82.
    Sankaranarayanan, R., Duffy, S. W., Nair, M. K., Padmakumary, G., & Day, N. E. (1990). Tobacco and alcohol as risk factors in cancer of the larynx in Kerala, India. International Journal of Cancer, 45(5), pp. 879-82.
    Sankaranarayanan R, et al. Tobacco and Alcohol as Risk Factors in Cancer of the Larynx in Kerala, India. Int J Cancer. 1990 May 15;45(5):879-82. PubMed PMID: 2335391.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Tobacco and alcohol as risk factors in cancer of the larynx in Kerala, India. AU - Sankaranarayanan,R, AU - Duffy,S W, AU - Nair,M K, AU - Padmakumary,G, AU - Day,N E, PY - 1990/5/15/pubmed PY - 1990/5/15/medline PY - 1990/5/15/entrez SP - 879 EP - 82 JF - International journal of cancer JO - Int. J. Cancer VL - 45 IS - 5 N2 - A case-control study of cancer of the larynx was carried out in Kerala, Southern India, on 191 male cancer cases and 549 male hospital-based controls. Risk factors investigated were pan(betel)-tobacco chewing, bidi and cigarette smoking, drinking alcohol and inhaling snuff. Significant positive associations with risk were observed for bidi smoking (p less than 0.001), bidi and cigarette smoking (p less than 0.001) and drinking alcohol (p less than 0.001). A predisposing effect of smoking cigarettes alone approached significance (0.1 less than p less than 0.05). What appeared to be an almost significant protective effect of pan-tobacco chewing (0.1 less than p less than 0.05) was found to be an artefact of confounding with smoking, and indeed a significant predisposing effect was observed of occasional chewing (p less than 0.001). After a stepwise logistic regression to eliminate those factors which were not significant when adjusted for other factors, significant effects remained of durations of bidi smoking and cigarette smoking, daily frequency of bidi and cigarette smoking and duration of alcohol drinking. Relative risks of 7.12, 5.18 and 2.58 were observed for durations of more than 20 years of bidi smoking, cigarette smoking and drinking alcohol respectively, and a relative risk of 12.68 was observed for those smoking more than 20 bidis/cigarettes per day, in each case relative to a baseline of those negative for the relevant habit. SN - 0020-7136 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/2335391/Tobacco_and_alcohol_as_risk_factors_in_cancer_of_the_larynx_in_Kerala_India_ L2 - https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/resolve/openurl?genre=article&sid=nlm:pubmed&issn=0020-7136&date=1990&volume=45&issue=5&spage=879 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -