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Associations between HIV-related stigma, racial discrimination, gender discrimination, and depression among HIV-positive African, Caribbean, and Black women in Ontario, Canada.
AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2013 Feb; 27(2):114-22.AP

Abstract

Abstract African, Caribbean, and Black (ACB) women are greatly overrepresented in new HIV infections in comparison with Canada's general population. Social and structural factors such as HIV-related stigma, gender discrimination, and racial discrimination converge to increase vulnerability to HIV infection among ACB women by reducing access to HIV prevention services. Stigma and discrimination also present barriers to treatment, care, and support and may contribute to mental health problems. We administered a cross-sectional survey to HIV-positive ACB women (n=173) across Ontario in order to examine the relationships between HIV-related stigma, gender discrimination, racial discrimination, and depression. One-third of participants reported moderate/severe depression scores using the Beck Depression Inventory Fast-Screen guidelines. Hierarchical block regression, moderation, and mediation analyses were conducted to measure associations between independent (HIV-related stigma, gender discrimination, racial discrimination), moderator/mediator (social support, resilient coping), and dependent (depression) variables. Findings included: (1) HIV-related stigma was associated with increased depression; (2) resilient coping was associated with reduced depression but did not moderate the influence of HIV-related stigma on depression; and (3) the effects of HIV-related stigma on depression were partially mediated through resilient coping. HIV-related stigma, gender discrimination, and racial discrimination were significantly correlated with one another and with depression, highlighting the salience of examining multiple intersecting forms of stigma. Generalizability of findings may be limited due to nonrandom sampling. Findings emphasize the importance of multi-component interventions, including building resilient coping skills, mental health promotion and assessment, and stigma reduction programs.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Social Work, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta. clogie@ucalgary.caNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

23373665

Citation

Logie, Carmen, et al. "Associations Between HIV-related Stigma, Racial Discrimination, Gender Discrimination, and Depression Among HIV-positive African, Caribbean, and Black Women in Ontario, Canada." AIDS Patient Care and STDs, vol. 27, no. 2, 2013, pp. 114-22.
Logie C, James L, Tharao W, et al. Associations between HIV-related stigma, racial discrimination, gender discrimination, and depression among HIV-positive African, Caribbean, and Black women in Ontario, Canada. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2013;27(2):114-22.
Logie, C., James, L., Tharao, W., & Loutfy, M. (2013). Associations between HIV-related stigma, racial discrimination, gender discrimination, and depression among HIV-positive African, Caribbean, and Black women in Ontario, Canada. AIDS Patient Care and STDs, 27(2), 114-22. https://doi.org/10.1089/apc.2012.0296
Logie C, et al. Associations Between HIV-related Stigma, Racial Discrimination, Gender Discrimination, and Depression Among HIV-positive African, Caribbean, and Black Women in Ontario, Canada. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2013;27(2):114-22. PubMed PMID: 23373665.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Associations between HIV-related stigma, racial discrimination, gender discrimination, and depression among HIV-positive African, Caribbean, and Black women in Ontario, Canada. AU - Logie,Carmen, AU - James,Llana, AU - Tharao,Wangari, AU - Loutfy,Mona, PY - 2013/2/5/entrez PY - 2013/2/5/pubmed PY - 2013/8/22/medline SP - 114 EP - 22 JF - AIDS patient care and STDs JO - AIDS Patient Care STDS VL - 27 IS - 2 N2 - Abstract African, Caribbean, and Black (ACB) women are greatly overrepresented in new HIV infections in comparison with Canada's general population. Social and structural factors such as HIV-related stigma, gender discrimination, and racial discrimination converge to increase vulnerability to HIV infection among ACB women by reducing access to HIV prevention services. Stigma and discrimination also present barriers to treatment, care, and support and may contribute to mental health problems. We administered a cross-sectional survey to HIV-positive ACB women (n=173) across Ontario in order to examine the relationships between HIV-related stigma, gender discrimination, racial discrimination, and depression. One-third of participants reported moderate/severe depression scores using the Beck Depression Inventory Fast-Screen guidelines. Hierarchical block regression, moderation, and mediation analyses were conducted to measure associations between independent (HIV-related stigma, gender discrimination, racial discrimination), moderator/mediator (social support, resilient coping), and dependent (depression) variables. Findings included: (1) HIV-related stigma was associated with increased depression; (2) resilient coping was associated with reduced depression but did not moderate the influence of HIV-related stigma on depression; and (3) the effects of HIV-related stigma on depression were partially mediated through resilient coping. HIV-related stigma, gender discrimination, and racial discrimination were significantly correlated with one another and with depression, highlighting the salience of examining multiple intersecting forms of stigma. Generalizability of findings may be limited due to nonrandom sampling. Findings emphasize the importance of multi-component interventions, including building resilient coping skills, mental health promotion and assessment, and stigma reduction programs. SN - 1557-7449 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/23373665/Associations_between_HIV_related_stigma_racial_discrimination_gender_discrimination_and_depression_among_HIV_positive_African_Caribbean_and_Black_women_in_Ontario_Canada_ L2 - https://www.liebertpub.com/doi/full/10.1089/apc.2012.0296?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&rfr_dat=cr_pub=pubmed DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -