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The Clinical Assessment Interview for Negative Symptoms (CAINS): final development and validation.
Am J Psychiatry 2013; 170(2):165-72AJ

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

A major barrier to developing treatments for negative symptoms has been measurement concerns with existing assessment tools. Fulfilling the top recommendation of the National Institute of Mental Health's Consensus Development Conference on Negative Symptoms, the Clinical Assessment Interview for Negative Symptoms (CAINS) was developed using an iterative, empirical approach, and includes items assessing motivation, pleasure, and emotion expression. The authors employed multiple analytic techniques to develop the CAINS and here provide final development and validation results.

METHOD

The CAINS structure, interrater agreement, test-retest reliability, and convergent and discriminant validity were assessed in a large and diverse sample of 162 outpatients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder recruited from four sites.

RESULTS

Three items with poor psychometric properties were removed, resulting in a 13-item CAINS. The CAINS factor structure was replicated, demonstrating two modestly correlated scales: expression (four items) and motivation/pleasure (nine items). The scales demonstrated good internal consistency, test-retest stability, and interrater agreement. Strong convergent validity was demonstrated by linkages with other negative symptom measures, self-report scales of sociality, pleasure, and motivation, and coded facial expressions. Discriminant validity was shown by independence from depression, medication side effects, and cognition. Notably, the CAINS scales were related to real-world vocational, independent living, and social/familial functioning.

CONCLUSIONS

The CAINS is an empirically developed and evaluated measure of negative symptoms. Findings indicate that the CAINS is brief yet comprehensive and employable across a wide range of research and clinical contexts.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Psychology, University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. akring@berkeley.eduNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

Language

eng

PubMed ID

23377637

Citation

Kring, Ann M., et al. "The Clinical Assessment Interview for Negative Symptoms (CAINS): Final Development and Validation." The American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 170, no. 2, 2013, pp. 165-72.
Kring AM, Gur RE, Blanchard JJ, et al. The Clinical Assessment Interview for Negative Symptoms (CAINS): final development and validation. Am J Psychiatry. 2013;170(2):165-72.
Kring, A. M., Gur, R. E., Blanchard, J. J., Horan, W. P., & Reise, S. P. (2013). The Clinical Assessment Interview for Negative Symptoms (CAINS): final development and validation. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 170(2), pp. 165-72. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.2012.12010109.
Kring AM, et al. The Clinical Assessment Interview for Negative Symptoms (CAINS): Final Development and Validation. Am J Psychiatry. 2013;170(2):165-72. PubMed PMID: 23377637.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - The Clinical Assessment Interview for Negative Symptoms (CAINS): final development and validation. AU - Kring,Ann M, AU - Gur,Raquel E, AU - Blanchard,Jack J, AU - Horan,William P, AU - Reise,Steven P, PY - 2013/2/5/entrez PY - 2013/2/5/pubmed PY - 2013/3/26/medline SP - 165 EP - 72 JF - The American journal of psychiatry JO - Am J Psychiatry VL - 170 IS - 2 N2 - OBJECTIVE: A major barrier to developing treatments for negative symptoms has been measurement concerns with existing assessment tools. Fulfilling the top recommendation of the National Institute of Mental Health's Consensus Development Conference on Negative Symptoms, the Clinical Assessment Interview for Negative Symptoms (CAINS) was developed using an iterative, empirical approach, and includes items assessing motivation, pleasure, and emotion expression. The authors employed multiple analytic techniques to develop the CAINS and here provide final development and validation results. METHOD: The CAINS structure, interrater agreement, test-retest reliability, and convergent and discriminant validity were assessed in a large and diverse sample of 162 outpatients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder recruited from four sites. RESULTS: Three items with poor psychometric properties were removed, resulting in a 13-item CAINS. The CAINS factor structure was replicated, demonstrating two modestly correlated scales: expression (four items) and motivation/pleasure (nine items). The scales demonstrated good internal consistency, test-retest stability, and interrater agreement. Strong convergent validity was demonstrated by linkages with other negative symptom measures, self-report scales of sociality, pleasure, and motivation, and coded facial expressions. Discriminant validity was shown by independence from depression, medication side effects, and cognition. Notably, the CAINS scales were related to real-world vocational, independent living, and social/familial functioning. CONCLUSIONS: The CAINS is an empirically developed and evaluated measure of negative symptoms. Findings indicate that the CAINS is brief yet comprehensive and employable across a wide range of research and clinical contexts. SN - 1535-7228 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/23377637/The_Clinical_Assessment_Interview_for_Negative_Symptoms__CAINS_:_final_development_and_validation_ L2 - https://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/doi/full/10.1176/appi.ajp.2012.12010109?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&rfr_dat=cr_pub=pubmed DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -