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Nutrition and neurodegeneration: epidemiological evidence and challenges for future research.

Abstract

The prevention of dementias, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), is a growing public health concern, due to a lack of effective curative treatment options and a rising global prevalence. Various potential risk or preventive factors have been suggested by epidemiological research, including modifiable lifestyle factors such as diet. Current epidemiological data are in favour of a protective role of certain micronutrients (B vitamins related to homocysteine metabolism, the anti-oxidant vitamins C and E, flavonoids, polyunsatured omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin D) and macronutrients (fish) in the prevention of cognitive decline and dementia/AD. Some factors have been targeted by interventions tested in randomized controlled trials (RCTs), but many of the results are conflicting with observational evidence. Epidemiological analysis of the relations between nutrient consumption and cognitive decline is complex and it is highly unlikely that a single component plays a major role. In addition, since multiple factors across the life course influence brain function in late life, multidomain interventions might be more promising in the prevention of cognitive decline and dementia/AD. Designing such trials remains very challenging for researchers. The main objective of this paper is to review the epidemiologic data linking potential protective factors to cognitive decline or dementia/AD, focusing particularly on the roles of adiposity, caloric restriction, micro (group B vitamins related to homocysteine metabolism, the anti-oxidant vitamins C and E, flavonoids, polyunsatured omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin D) and macronutrients (fish). Limitations of the current data, divergence with results of interventional prevention studies and challenges for future research are discussed.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Gerontopole, Toulouse University Hospital, Department of Internal Medicine and Geriatrics, Purpan University Hospital, Toulouse F-31059, France. gillette.s@chu-toulouse.fr

    ,

    Source

    MeSH

    Alzheimer Disease
    Antioxidants
    Cognition Disorders
    Diet
    Epidemiologic Studies
    Fatty Acids, Omega-3
    Humans
    Micronutrients
    Nutritional Status
    Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
    Risk Factors
    Vitamins

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Review

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    23384081

    Citation

    Gillette-Guyonnet, Sophie, et al. "Nutrition and Neurodegeneration: Epidemiological Evidence and Challenges for Future Research." British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, vol. 75, no. 3, 2013, pp. 738-55.
    Gillette-Guyonnet S, Secher M, Vellas B. Nutrition and neurodegeneration: epidemiological evidence and challenges for future research. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2013;75(3):738-55.
    Gillette-Guyonnet, S., Secher, M., & Vellas, B. (2013). Nutrition and neurodegeneration: epidemiological evidence and challenges for future research. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 75(3), pp. 738-55. doi:10.1111/bcp.12058.
    Gillette-Guyonnet S, Secher M, Vellas B. Nutrition and Neurodegeneration: Epidemiological Evidence and Challenges for Future Research. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2013;75(3):738-55. PubMed PMID: 23384081.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Nutrition and neurodegeneration: epidemiological evidence and challenges for future research. AU - Gillette-Guyonnet,Sophie, AU - Secher,Marion, AU - Vellas,Bruno, PY - 2012/02/16/received PY - 2012/11/20/accepted PY - 2013/2/7/entrez PY - 2013/2/7/pubmed PY - 2013/8/7/medline SP - 738 EP - 55 JF - British journal of clinical pharmacology JO - Br J Clin Pharmacol VL - 75 IS - 3 N2 - The prevention of dementias, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), is a growing public health concern, due to a lack of effective curative treatment options and a rising global prevalence. Various potential risk or preventive factors have been suggested by epidemiological research, including modifiable lifestyle factors such as diet. Current epidemiological data are in favour of a protective role of certain micronutrients (B vitamins related to homocysteine metabolism, the anti-oxidant vitamins C and E, flavonoids, polyunsatured omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin D) and macronutrients (fish) in the prevention of cognitive decline and dementia/AD. Some factors have been targeted by interventions tested in randomized controlled trials (RCTs), but many of the results are conflicting with observational evidence. Epidemiological analysis of the relations between nutrient consumption and cognitive decline is complex and it is highly unlikely that a single component plays a major role. In addition, since multiple factors across the life course influence brain function in late life, multidomain interventions might be more promising in the prevention of cognitive decline and dementia/AD. Designing such trials remains very challenging for researchers. The main objective of this paper is to review the epidemiologic data linking potential protective factors to cognitive decline or dementia/AD, focusing particularly on the roles of adiposity, caloric restriction, micro (group B vitamins related to homocysteine metabolism, the anti-oxidant vitamins C and E, flavonoids, polyunsatured omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin D) and macronutrients (fish). Limitations of the current data, divergence with results of interventional prevention studies and challenges for future research are discussed. SN - 1365-2125 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/23384081/Nutrition_and_neurodegeneration:_epidemiological_evidence_and_challenges_for_future_research_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1111/bcp.12058 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -