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Attitudes of community pharmacists to antibiotic dispensing and microbial resistance: a qualitative study in Portugal.
Int J Clin Pharm. 2013 Jun; 35(3):417-24.IJ

Abstract

BACKGROUND

The inappropriate use of antibiotics is considered a main cause of microbial resistance. This is an important public health problem. Community pharmacists have an important role in the management of drugs for outpatients.

OBJECTIVE

Our study sought to explore pharmacists' knowledge, attitudes, perceptions and dispensing habits insofar as to antibiotics and microbial resistance.

SETTING

The study was developed with community pharmacists in the North of Portugal.

METHODS

Qualitative research in the form of focus groups (FG). Focus groups were conducted with 4-7 pharmacists, using a moderator. A topic guide was developed to lead the discussions, which were audio-recorded and transcribed. The study was carried out between December 2010 and March 2011 in the five districts of the Northern Health Region of Portugal (ARS-N). Pharmacists from different regions of each district were invited to participate in the study by an investigator responsible for the study. Participants were informed about the study and that sessions were audio-recorded to facilitate data interpretation. They signed an informed consent form before taking part in the focus groups. The Ethical Committee of ARS-N was informed of this study.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE

Pharmacists' knowledge and perceptions on antibiotic use and microbial resistance, attitudes related to antibiotic dispensing habits, and pharmacists' suggestions to improve antibiotic use.

RESULTS

A total of 6 focus groups were conducted with community pharmacists (n = 32). Attitudes related to the problem of resistance were attributed external responsibility, to patients, to physicians, to other pharmacies, and to veterinary consumption. Some attitudes were identified that could lead to antibiotic dispensing without a prescription. These attitudes are complacency, precaution and external complacency.

CONCLUSIONS

Portuguese pharmacists perceive that antibiotic use and bacterial resistance could be improved, showing a behavioural intention to improve antibiotic dispensing habits.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Center for Cell Biology, University of Aveiro, Aveiro, Portugal. froque@ipg.ptNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

23397322

Citation

Roque, Fátima, et al. "Attitudes of Community Pharmacists to Antibiotic Dispensing and Microbial Resistance: a Qualitative Study in Portugal." International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy, vol. 35, no. 3, 2013, pp. 417-24.
Roque F, Soares S, Breitenfeld L, et al. Attitudes of community pharmacists to antibiotic dispensing and microbial resistance: a qualitative study in Portugal. Int J Clin Pharm. 2013;35(3):417-24.
Roque, F., Soares, S., Breitenfeld, L., López-Durán, A., Figueiras, A., & Herdeiro, M. T. (2013). Attitudes of community pharmacists to antibiotic dispensing and microbial resistance: a qualitative study in Portugal. International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy, 35(3), 417-24. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11096-013-9753-4
Roque F, et al. Attitudes of Community Pharmacists to Antibiotic Dispensing and Microbial Resistance: a Qualitative Study in Portugal. Int J Clin Pharm. 2013;35(3):417-24. PubMed PMID: 23397322.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Attitudes of community pharmacists to antibiotic dispensing and microbial resistance: a qualitative study in Portugal. AU - Roque,Fátima, AU - Soares,Sara, AU - Breitenfeld,Luiza, AU - López-Durán,Ana, AU - Figueiras,Adolfo, AU - Herdeiro,Maria Teresa, Y1 - 2013/02/09/ PY - 2012/05/15/received PY - 2013/01/22/accepted PY - 2013/2/12/entrez PY - 2013/2/12/pubmed PY - 2013/12/16/medline SP - 417 EP - 24 JF - International journal of clinical pharmacy JO - Int J Clin Pharm VL - 35 IS - 3 N2 - BACKGROUND: The inappropriate use of antibiotics is considered a main cause of microbial resistance. This is an important public health problem. Community pharmacists have an important role in the management of drugs for outpatients. OBJECTIVE: Our study sought to explore pharmacists' knowledge, attitudes, perceptions and dispensing habits insofar as to antibiotics and microbial resistance. SETTING: The study was developed with community pharmacists in the North of Portugal. METHODS: Qualitative research in the form of focus groups (FG). Focus groups were conducted with 4-7 pharmacists, using a moderator. A topic guide was developed to lead the discussions, which were audio-recorded and transcribed. The study was carried out between December 2010 and March 2011 in the five districts of the Northern Health Region of Portugal (ARS-N). Pharmacists from different regions of each district were invited to participate in the study by an investigator responsible for the study. Participants were informed about the study and that sessions were audio-recorded to facilitate data interpretation. They signed an informed consent form before taking part in the focus groups. The Ethical Committee of ARS-N was informed of this study. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Pharmacists' knowledge and perceptions on antibiotic use and microbial resistance, attitudes related to antibiotic dispensing habits, and pharmacists' suggestions to improve antibiotic use. RESULTS: A total of 6 focus groups were conducted with community pharmacists (n = 32). Attitudes related to the problem of resistance were attributed external responsibility, to patients, to physicians, to other pharmacies, and to veterinary consumption. Some attitudes were identified that could lead to antibiotic dispensing without a prescription. These attitudes are complacency, precaution and external complacency. CONCLUSIONS: Portuguese pharmacists perceive that antibiotic use and bacterial resistance could be improved, showing a behavioural intention to improve antibiotic dispensing habits. SN - 2210-7711 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/23397322/Attitudes_of_community_pharmacists_to_antibiotic_dispensing_and_microbial_resistance:_a_qualitative_study_in_Portugal_ L2 - https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11096-013-9753-4 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -