A Phase IIb, randomized, placebo-controlled study of the SGLT2 inhibitor empagliflozin in patients with type 2 diabetes.Diabetes Obes Metab. 2013 Aug; 15(8):721-8.DO
This Phase IIb, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial evaluated the efficacy, safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of empagliflozin in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Four hundred and eight patients (treatment-naïve or after a 4-week wash-out period) were randomized to receive empagliflozin 5, 10 or 25 mg once daily, placebo or open-label metformin for 12 weeks. The primary endpoint was change in haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) after 12 weeks.
After 12 weeks' treatment, empagliflozin showed dose-dependent reductions in HbA1c from baseline [5 mg: -0.4%, 10 mg: -0.5%, 25 mg: -0.6%; all doses p < 0.0001 vs. placebo (+0.09%)]. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) decreased with empagliflozin [5 mg: -1.29 mmol/l, 10 mg: -1.61 mmol/l, 25 mg: -1.72 mmol/l; all doses p < 0.0001 vs. placebo (+0.04 mmol/l)]. Body weight decreased in all empagliflozin groups (all doses p < 0.001 vs. placebo). The incidence of adverse events (AEs) was similar in the placebo (32.9%) and empagliflozin (29.1%) groups. The most frequently reported AEs on empagliflozin were pollakiuria (3.3% vs. 0% for placebo), thirst (3.3% vs. 0% for placebo) and nasopharyngitis (2.0% vs. 1.2% for placebo). AEs consistent with urinary tract infections (UTIs) were reported in four (1.6%) patients on empagliflozin vs. one (1.2%) on placebo. Genital infections were reported in five (2%) patients on empagliflozin vs. 0% on placebo. No UTIs or genital infections led to premature discontinuation.
In patients with type 2 diabetes, empagliflozin resulted in dose-dependent, clinically meaningful reductions in HbA1c and FPG, and reductions in body weight compared with placebo. Empagliflozin was well-tolerated with a favourable safety profile.