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Assessment of risk for asthma initiation and cancer and heart disease deaths among patrons and servers due to secondhand smoke exposure in restaurants and bars.
Tob Control. 2014 Jul; 23(4):332-8.TC

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Despite efforts to reduce exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS), only 5% of the world's population enjoy smoke-free restaurants and bars.

METHODS

Lifetime excess risk (LER) of cancer death, ischaemic heart disease (IHD) death and asthma initiation among non-smoking restaurant and bar servers and patrons in Minnesota and the US were estimated using weighted field measurements of SHS constituents in Minnesota, existing data on tobacco use and multiple dose-response models.

RESULTS

A continuous approach estimated a LER of lung cancer death (LCD) of 18 × 10(-6)(95% CI 13 to 23 × 10(-6)) for patrons visiting only designated non-smoking sections, 80 × 10(-6)(95% CI 66 to 95 × 10(-6)) for patrons visiting only smoking venues/sections and 802 × 10(-6)(95% CI 658 to 936 × 10(-6)) for servers in smoking-permitted venues. An attributable-risk (exposed/non-exposed) approach estimated a similar LER of LCD, a LER of IHD death about 10(-2) for non-smokers with average SHS exposure from all sources and a LER of asthma initiation about 5% for servers with SHS exposure at work only. These risks correspond to 214 LCDs and 3001 IHD deaths among the general non-smoking population and 1420 new asthma cases among non-smoking servers in the US each year due to SHS exposure in restaurants and bars alone.

CONCLUSIONS

Health risks for patrons and servers from SHS exposure in restaurants and bars alone are well above the acceptable level. Restaurants and bars should be a priority for governments' effort to create smoke-free environments and should not be exempt from smoking bans.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, California, USA.Center for Energy and Environment, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA.Department of Indoor Environment, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California, USA.Center for Energy and Environment, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA.Department of Indoor Environment, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California, USA.Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, California, USA.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

23407112

Citation

Liu, Ruiling, et al. "Assessment of Risk for Asthma Initiation and Cancer and Heart Disease Deaths Among Patrons and Servers Due to Secondhand Smoke Exposure in Restaurants and Bars." Tobacco Control, vol. 23, no. 4, 2014, pp. 332-8.
Liu R, Bohac DL, Gundel LA, et al. Assessment of risk for asthma initiation and cancer and heart disease deaths among patrons and servers due to secondhand smoke exposure in restaurants and bars. Tob Control. 2014;23(4):332-8.
Liu, R., Bohac, D. L., Gundel, L. A., Hewett, M. J., Apte, M. G., & Hammond, S. K. (2014). Assessment of risk for asthma initiation and cancer and heart disease deaths among patrons and servers due to secondhand smoke exposure in restaurants and bars. Tobacco Control, 23(4), 332-8. https://doi.org/10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2012-050831
Liu R, et al. Assessment of Risk for Asthma Initiation and Cancer and Heart Disease Deaths Among Patrons and Servers Due to Secondhand Smoke Exposure in Restaurants and Bars. Tob Control. 2014;23(4):332-8. PubMed PMID: 23407112.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Assessment of risk for asthma initiation and cancer and heart disease deaths among patrons and servers due to secondhand smoke exposure in restaurants and bars. AU - Liu,Ruiling, AU - Bohac,David L, AU - Gundel,Lara A, AU - Hewett,Martha J, AU - Apte,Michael G, AU - Hammond,S Katharine, Y1 - 2013/02/13/ PY - 2013/2/15/entrez PY - 2013/2/15/pubmed PY - 2015/1/27/medline KW - Environment KW - Priority/special populations KW - Public policy KW - Secondhand smoke KW - Smoking Caused Disease SP - 332 EP - 8 JF - Tobacco control JO - Tob Control VL - 23 IS - 4 N2 - BACKGROUND: Despite efforts to reduce exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS), only 5% of the world's population enjoy smoke-free restaurants and bars. METHODS: Lifetime excess risk (LER) of cancer death, ischaemic heart disease (IHD) death and asthma initiation among non-smoking restaurant and bar servers and patrons in Minnesota and the US were estimated using weighted field measurements of SHS constituents in Minnesota, existing data on tobacco use and multiple dose-response models. RESULTS: A continuous approach estimated a LER of lung cancer death (LCD) of 18 × 10(-6)(95% CI 13 to 23 × 10(-6)) for patrons visiting only designated non-smoking sections, 80 × 10(-6)(95% CI 66 to 95 × 10(-6)) for patrons visiting only smoking venues/sections and 802 × 10(-6)(95% CI 658 to 936 × 10(-6)) for servers in smoking-permitted venues. An attributable-risk (exposed/non-exposed) approach estimated a similar LER of LCD, a LER of IHD death about 10(-2) for non-smokers with average SHS exposure from all sources and a LER of asthma initiation about 5% for servers with SHS exposure at work only. These risks correspond to 214 LCDs and 3001 IHD deaths among the general non-smoking population and 1420 new asthma cases among non-smoking servers in the US each year due to SHS exposure in restaurants and bars alone. CONCLUSIONS: Health risks for patrons and servers from SHS exposure in restaurants and bars alone are well above the acceptable level. Restaurants and bars should be a priority for governments' effort to create smoke-free environments and should not be exempt from smoking bans. SN - 1468-3318 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/23407112/Assessment_of_risk_for_asthma_initiation_and_cancer_and_heart_disease_deaths_among_patrons_and_servers_due_to_secondhand_smoke_exposure_in_restaurants_and_bars_ L2 - https://tobaccocontrol.bmj.com/lookup/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=23407112 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -