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Heroin use and heroin use risk behaviors among nonmedical users of prescription opioid pain relievers - United States, 2002-2004 and 2008-2010.

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Heroin use and overdose deaths have increased in recent years. Emerging information suggests this is the result of increases in nonmedical use of opioid pain relievers and nonmedical users transitioning to heroin use. Understanding this relationship is critically important for the development of public health interventions.

METHODS

Combined data from the 2002-2004 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health were compared to the 2008-2010 surveys to examine patterns of heroin use and risk behaviors among past year nonmedical users of opioid pain relievers.

RESULTS

Between 2002-2004 and 2008-2010, past year heroin use increased among people reporting past year nonmedical use (PYNMU) of opioid pain relievers (p<0.01), but not among those reporting no PYNMU. Frequent nonmedical users - people reporting 100-365 days of PYNMU - had the highest rate of past year heroin use and were at increased risk for ever injecting heroin (aOR 4.3, 95% CI 2.5-7.3) and past year heroin abuse or dependence (aOR 7.8, 95% CI 4.7-12.8) compared to infrequent nonmedical users (1-29 days of PYNMU). In 2008-2010, 82.6% of frequent nonmedical users who used heroin in the past year reported nonmedical use of opioid pain relievers prior to heroin initiation compared to 64.1% in 2002-2004.

CONCLUSIONS

Heroin use among nonmedical users of opioid pain relievers increased between 2002-2004 and 2008-2010, with most reporting nonmedical use of opioid pain relievers before initiating heroin. Interventions to prevent nonmedical use of these drugs are needed and should focus on high-risk groups such as frequent nonmedical users of opioids.

Links

  • Publisher Full Text
  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Division of Unintentional Injury Prevention, 4770 Buford Highway, Atlanta, GA 30341, United States. cjones@cdc.gov

    Source

    Drug and alcohol dependence 132:1-2 2013 Sep 01 pg 95-100

    MeSH

    Adolescent
    Adult
    Age of Onset
    Analgesics, Opioid
    Child
    Female
    Health Surveys
    Heroin Dependence
    Humans
    Male
    Opioid-Related Disorders
    Prescription Drug Diversion
    Prescription Drug Misuse
    Risk
    Socioeconomic Factors
    United States
    Young Adult

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    23410617

    Citation

    TY - JOUR T1 - Heroin use and heroin use risk behaviors among nonmedical users of prescription opioid pain relievers - United States, 2002-2004 and 2008-2010. A1 - Jones,Christopher M, Y1 - 2013/02/12/ PY - 2012/09/09/received PY - 2012/11/08/revised PY - 2013/01/14/accepted PY - 2013/2/16/entrez PY - 2013/2/16/pubmed PY - 2014/3/15/medline KW - Heroin KW - NSDUM KW - National Survey on Drug Use and Health KW - Prescription opioid use KW - Prescription opioids SP - 95 EP - 100 JF - Drug and alcohol dependence JO - Drug Alcohol Depend VL - 132 IS - 1-2 N2 - BACKGROUND: Heroin use and overdose deaths have increased in recent years. Emerging information suggests this is the result of increases in nonmedical use of opioid pain relievers and nonmedical users transitioning to heroin use. Understanding this relationship is critically important for the development of public health interventions. METHODS: Combined data from the 2002-2004 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health were compared to the 2008-2010 surveys to examine patterns of heroin use and risk behaviors among past year nonmedical users of opioid pain relievers. RESULTS: Between 2002-2004 and 2008-2010, past year heroin use increased among people reporting past year nonmedical use (PYNMU) of opioid pain relievers (p<0.01), but not among those reporting no PYNMU. Frequent nonmedical users - people reporting 100-365 days of PYNMU - had the highest rate of past year heroin use and were at increased risk for ever injecting heroin (aOR 4.3, 95% CI 2.5-7.3) and past year heroin abuse or dependence (aOR 7.8, 95% CI 4.7-12.8) compared to infrequent nonmedical users (1-29 days of PYNMU). In 2008-2010, 82.6% of frequent nonmedical users who used heroin in the past year reported nonmedical use of opioid pain relievers prior to heroin initiation compared to 64.1% in 2002-2004. CONCLUSIONS: Heroin use among nonmedical users of opioid pain relievers increased between 2002-2004 and 2008-2010, with most reporting nonmedical use of opioid pain relievers before initiating heroin. Interventions to prevent nonmedical use of these drugs are needed and should focus on high-risk groups such as frequent nonmedical users of opioids. SN - 1879-0046 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/23410617/Heroin_use_and_heroin_use_risk_behaviors_among_nonmedical_users_of_prescription_opioid_pain_relievers___United_States_2002_2004_and_2008_2010_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0376-8716(13)00019-7 ER -