A comparative study of ultrasonication, Fenton's oxidation and ferro-sonication treatment for degradation of carbamazepine from wastewater and toxicity test by Yeast Estrogen Screen (YES) assay.Sci Total Environ. 2013 Mar 01; 447:280-5.ST
A comparative study of ultrasonication (US), Fenton's oxidation (FO) and ferro-sonication (FS) (combination of ultrasonication and Fenton's oxidation) advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) for degradation of carbamazepine (CBZ) from wastewater (WW) is reported for the first time. CBZ is a worldwide used antiepileptic drug, found as a persistent emerging contaminant in many wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) effluents and other aquatic environments. The oxidation treatments of WW caused an effective removal of the drug. Among the various US, FO and FS pre-treatments carried out, higher soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) and soluble organic carbon (SOC) increment (63 to 86% and 21 to 34%, respectively) was observed during FO pre-treatment process, resulting in higher removal of CBZ (84 to 100%) from WW. Furthermore, analysis of by-products formed during US, FO and FS pre-treatment in WW was carried out by using laser diode thermal desorption-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (LDTD-APCI) coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). LDTD-APCI-MS/MS analysis indicated formation of two by-products, such as epoxycarbamazepine and hydroxycarbamazepine due to the reaction of hydroxyl radicals (OH) with CBZ during the three types of pre-treatment processes. In addition, the estrogenic activity of US, FO and FS pre-treated sample with CBZ and its by-products was carried out by Yeast Estrogen Screen (YES) assay method. Based upon the YES test results, none of the pre-treated samples showed estrogenic activity.