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Gastro-oesophageal reflux. Part 1: smoking and alcohol reduction.
Br J Nurs 2013 Feb 14-28; 22(3):140-2, 144-6BJ

Abstract

INTRODUCTION

Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) is defined as an abnormal reflux of the stomach contents into the oesophagus, which provokes symptoms and impairs the quality of life. GORD has a high prevalence and incurs costs to the healthcare system. This is the first paper in a series of three exploring the conservative, medical and surgical treatment of GORD. This first paper presents a review of the effect of smoking and alcohol on reflux symptoms and the impact of smoking and alcohol reduction on symptoms of GORD.

METHODS

A search for English language studies on adults was conducted using three databases, MEDLINE, Embase and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL). Eleven relevant studies were included in the review.

FINDINGS

The effect of alcohol on the stimulation of reflux has been debated over the years in different studies. Some studies state that alcohol consumption induces reflux and moderate amounts exacerbate nocturnal gastro-oesophageal heartburn reflux. However, other studies have found no association between alcohol consumption and reflux. Most reflux occurs during smoking because nicotine causes the lower oesophageal sphincter to relax, which increases the risk of reflux. Similarly, the number of cigarettes smoked is associated with the risk of reflux.

CONCLUSIONS

Nurses need to be aware of the effect of smoking and alcohol on reflux to provide evidence-based advice to empower patients to change their lifestyle, which results in increased therapeutic compliance and a better clinical status. There is no evidence that reducing alcohol consumption decreases symptoms and only limited evidence on the effectiveness of smoking cessation. Further research into the effectiveness of these lifestyle modifications is therefore required.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Saudi Aramco Dhahran Health Care Centre.No affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

23411821

Citation

Al Talalwah, Narmeen, and Sue Woodward. "Gastro-oesophageal Reflux. Part 1: Smoking and Alcohol Reduction." British Journal of Nursing (Mark Allen Publishing), vol. 22, no. 3, 2013, pp. 140-2, 144-6.
Al Talalwah N, Woodward S. Gastro-oesophageal reflux. Part 1: smoking and alcohol reduction. Br J Nurs. 2013;22(3):140-2, 144-6.
Al Talalwah, N., & Woodward, S. (2013). Gastro-oesophageal reflux. Part 1: smoking and alcohol reduction. British Journal of Nursing (Mark Allen Publishing), 22(3), pp. 140-2, 144-6.
Al Talalwah N, Woodward S. Gastro-oesophageal Reflux. Part 1: Smoking and Alcohol Reduction. Br J Nurs. 2013;22(3):140-2, 144-6. PubMed PMID: 23411821.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Gastro-oesophageal reflux. Part 1: smoking and alcohol reduction. AU - Al Talalwah,Narmeen, AU - Woodward,Sue, PY - 2013/2/16/entrez PY - 2013/2/16/pubmed PY - 2013/5/1/medline SP - 140-2, 144-6 JF - British journal of nursing (Mark Allen Publishing) JO - Br J Nurs VL - 22 IS - 3 N2 - INTRODUCTION: Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) is defined as an abnormal reflux of the stomach contents into the oesophagus, which provokes symptoms and impairs the quality of life. GORD has a high prevalence and incurs costs to the healthcare system. This is the first paper in a series of three exploring the conservative, medical and surgical treatment of GORD. This first paper presents a review of the effect of smoking and alcohol on reflux symptoms and the impact of smoking and alcohol reduction on symptoms of GORD. METHODS: A search for English language studies on adults was conducted using three databases, MEDLINE, Embase and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL). Eleven relevant studies were included in the review. FINDINGS: The effect of alcohol on the stimulation of reflux has been debated over the years in different studies. Some studies state that alcohol consumption induces reflux and moderate amounts exacerbate nocturnal gastro-oesophageal heartburn reflux. However, other studies have found no association between alcohol consumption and reflux. Most reflux occurs during smoking because nicotine causes the lower oesophageal sphincter to relax, which increases the risk of reflux. Similarly, the number of cigarettes smoked is associated with the risk of reflux. CONCLUSIONS: Nurses need to be aware of the effect of smoking and alcohol on reflux to provide evidence-based advice to empower patients to change their lifestyle, which results in increased therapeutic compliance and a better clinical status. There is no evidence that reducing alcohol consumption decreases symptoms and only limited evidence on the effectiveness of smoking cessation. Further research into the effectiveness of these lifestyle modifications is therefore required. SN - 0966-0461 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/23411821/Gastro_oesophageal_reflux__Part_1:_smoking_and_alcohol_reduction_ L2 - http://www.magonlinelibrary.com/doi/full/10.12968/bjon.2013.22.3.140?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&rfr_dat=cr_pub=pubmed DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -