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Effect of pH on anti-rotavirus activity by comestible juices and proanthocyanidins in a cell-free assay system.
Food Environ Virol. 2012 Dec; 4(4):168-78.FE

Abstract

Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) and grape (Vitis labrusca) juices, and these species' secondary plant metabolites [i.e., proanthocyanidins (PACs)] possess antiviral activity. An understanding of the mechanism(s) responsible for these juices and their polyphenolic constituents' direct effect on enteric virus integrity, however, remains poorly defined. Using the rotavirus (RTV) as a model enteric virus system, the direct effect of manufacturer-supplied and commercially purchased juices [Ocean Spray Pure Cranberry 100 % Unsweetened Juice (CJ), Welch's 100 % Grape Juice (GJ), 100 % Concord (PG) and 100 % Niagara juices (NG)] and these species' cranberry (C-PACs) and grape PACs (G-PACs) was investigated. Loss of viral capsid integrity in cell-free suspension by juices and their PACs, and as a factor of pH, was identified by an antigen (RTV) capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. At native and an artificially increased suspension at or near pH 7, loss of viral infectivity occurred after 5 min, in the order CJ > NG = GJ > PG, and PG > GJ = NG = CJ, respectively. Antiviral activity of CJ was inversely related to pH. Grape, but not cranberry PACs, displayed a comparatively greater anti-RTV activity at a suspension pH of 6.7. Anti-RTV activity of C-PACs was regained upon reduction of RTV-cranberry PAC suspensions to pH 4. An alteration or modification of Type A PAC (of V. macrocarpon) structural integrity at or near physiologic pH is suggested to have impacted on this molecule's antivirus activity. Type B PACs (of V. labrusca) were refractive to alternations of pH. Significantly, findings from pure system RTV-PAC testing paralleled and in turn, supported those RTV-juice antiviral studies. Electron microscopy showed an enshroudment by PACs of RTV particles, suggesting a blockage of viral antigenic binding determinants. The implications of our work are significant, especially in the interpretation of PAC (and PAC-containing food)-RTV interactions in the differing [pH] conditions of the gastrointestinal tract.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Biology and Health Promotion, St. Francis College, 180 Remsen Street, Brooklyn Heights, NY 11201, USA. slipson@sfc.eduNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

23412889

Citation

Lipson, Steven M., et al. "Effect of pH On Anti-rotavirus Activity By Comestible Juices and Proanthocyanidins in a Cell-free Assay System." Food and Environmental Virology, vol. 4, no. 4, 2012, pp. 168-78.
Lipson SM, Ozen FS, Karthikeyan L, et al. Effect of pH on anti-rotavirus activity by comestible juices and proanthocyanidins in a cell-free assay system. Food Environ Virol. 2012;4(4):168-78.
Lipson, S. M., Ozen, F. S., Karthikeyan, L., & Gordon, R. E. (2012). Effect of pH on anti-rotavirus activity by comestible juices and proanthocyanidins in a cell-free assay system. Food and Environmental Virology, 4(4), 168-78. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12560-012-9086-9
Lipson SM, et al. Effect of pH On Anti-rotavirus Activity By Comestible Juices and Proanthocyanidins in a Cell-free Assay System. Food Environ Virol. 2012;4(4):168-78. PubMed PMID: 23412889.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Effect of pH on anti-rotavirus activity by comestible juices and proanthocyanidins in a cell-free assay system. AU - Lipson,Steven M, AU - Ozen,Fatma S, AU - Karthikeyan,Laina, AU - Gordon,Ronald E, Y1 - 2012/09/12/ PY - 2012/05/19/received PY - 2012/08/30/accepted PY - 2013/2/16/entrez PY - 2013/2/16/pubmed PY - 2013/8/15/medline SP - 168 EP - 78 JF - Food and environmental virology JO - Food Environ Virol VL - 4 IS - 4 N2 - Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) and grape (Vitis labrusca) juices, and these species' secondary plant metabolites [i.e., proanthocyanidins (PACs)] possess antiviral activity. An understanding of the mechanism(s) responsible for these juices and their polyphenolic constituents' direct effect on enteric virus integrity, however, remains poorly defined. Using the rotavirus (RTV) as a model enteric virus system, the direct effect of manufacturer-supplied and commercially purchased juices [Ocean Spray Pure Cranberry 100 % Unsweetened Juice (CJ), Welch's 100 % Grape Juice (GJ), 100 % Concord (PG) and 100 % Niagara juices (NG)] and these species' cranberry (C-PACs) and grape PACs (G-PACs) was investigated. Loss of viral capsid integrity in cell-free suspension by juices and their PACs, and as a factor of pH, was identified by an antigen (RTV) capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. At native and an artificially increased suspension at or near pH 7, loss of viral infectivity occurred after 5 min, in the order CJ > NG = GJ > PG, and PG > GJ = NG = CJ, respectively. Antiviral activity of CJ was inversely related to pH. Grape, but not cranberry PACs, displayed a comparatively greater anti-RTV activity at a suspension pH of 6.7. Anti-RTV activity of C-PACs was regained upon reduction of RTV-cranberry PAC suspensions to pH 4. An alteration or modification of Type A PAC (of V. macrocarpon) structural integrity at or near physiologic pH is suggested to have impacted on this molecule's antivirus activity. Type B PACs (of V. labrusca) were refractive to alternations of pH. Significantly, findings from pure system RTV-PAC testing paralleled and in turn, supported those RTV-juice antiviral studies. Electron microscopy showed an enshroudment by PACs of RTV particles, suggesting a blockage of viral antigenic binding determinants. The implications of our work are significant, especially in the interpretation of PAC (and PAC-containing food)-RTV interactions in the differing [pH] conditions of the gastrointestinal tract. SN - 1867-0342 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/23412889/Effect_of_pH_on_anti_rotavirus_activity_by_comestible_juices_and_proanthocyanidins_in_a_cell_free_assay_system_ L2 - https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12560-012-9086-9 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -