Protein Z variants associated with protein Z plasma levels and with risk of idiopathic recurrent miscarriage.Reprod Sci. 2013 Sep; 20(9):1062-8.RS
Protein Z (PZ) deficiency due to anti-PZ autoantibodies and/or mutations in PZgene was linked with adverse pregnancy outcomes, including idiopathic recurrent miscarriage (IRM). We investigated the association of rs3024718, rs3024719, rs3024731, rs3024778, rs3024772, and rs3024735 (G79A) PZ variants and changes in PZ levels in 287 women with IRM, and 308 control women. Of the 6 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) analyzed, higher minor allele frequency of rs3024735 (G79A) and rs3024731 were seen in IRM cases than in control women. Significantly higher frequencies of rs3024735/G79A G/A and A/A (P< .001), rs3024719 G/A (P= .009), and rs3024731 A/A (P = .012), but not rs3024718 (P= .12), rs3024778 (P = .76), or rs3024772 (P= .27) genotype carriers were seen between IRM cases versus control women, respectively, and was linked with reduced PZ levels. Six-locus (rs3024718/rs3024719/rs3024778/rs3024731/rs3024735/rs3024772) PZhaplotypes analysis demonstrated increased frequency of GAGAAG and AGGTAG and reduced frequency of AGGTGC haplotypes in IRM cases, thereby conferring disease susceptibility and protective nature to these haplotypes, respectively. These results demonstrate that specific PZSNPs and haplotypes are significantly associated with IRM.