Prevalence and correlates of calcium and vitamin D status adequacy in adolescents, adults, and elderly from the Health Survey-São Paulo.Nutrition 2013; 29(6):845-50N
In addition to the importance of adequate calcium and vitamin D status for health and prevention of several chronic diseases, a high prevalence of both nutrient inadequacy and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) insufficiency has been observed. The aim of this study was to estimate calcium and vitamin D status correlates and adequacy from a population-based epidemiologic study.
This is a subsample of a cross-sectional study of a representative sample of individuals living in São Paulo that includes 636 participants. A 24-h dietary record and a blood sample were collected. Nutrient adequacy was estimated by adjusting for the within-person variance of the nutrient intake. Serum concentration of 25(OH)D was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography and considered adequate when ≥ 50 nmol/L.
Calcium and vitamin D intake decrease according to life stages in both men and women, and increases with family income and educational level. The prevalence of calcium intake inadequacy is higher than 70% and almost 100% for vitamin D. The highest 25(OH)D concentration was observed in the fall-51.7 (20.4) nmol/L-and lowest in the summer-30.1 (8.8) nmol/L. Sex, body mass index, physical activity, alcohol and smoking habits, life stage, family income, skin color, waist circumference, and season of the year could explain 22% of the variability of 25(OH)D.
The present study demonstrates important inadequacies regarding the nutritional status of calcium and vitamin D and indicates an urgent need not only for health professionals, but also for government and food industries to undertake new initiatives that could result in a real improvement in terms of calcium and vitamin D nutrition.