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Sulfidation mechanism for zinc oxide nanoparticles and the effect of sulfidation on their solubility.
Environ Sci Technol. 2013 Mar 19; 47(6):2527-34.ES

Abstract

Environmental transformations of nanoparticles (NPs) affect their properties and toxicity potential. Sulfidation is an important transformation process affecting the fate of NPs containing metal cations with an affinity for sulfide. Here, the extent and mechanism of sulfidation of ZnO NPs were investigated, and the properties of resulting products were carefully characterized. Synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis reveal that transformation of ZnO to ZnS occurs readily at ambient temperature in the presence of inorganic sulfide. The extent of sulfidation depends on sulfide concentration, and close to 100% conversion can be obtained in 5 days given sufficient addition of sulfide. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy showed formation of primarily ZnS NPs smaller than 5 nm, indicating that sulfidation of ZnO NPs occurs by a dissolution and reprecipitation mechanism. The solubility of partially sulfidized ZnO NPs is controlled by the remaining ZnO core and not quenched by a ZnS shell formed as was observed for partially sulfidized Ag NPs. Sulfidation also led to NP aggregation and a decrease of surface charge. These changes suggest that sulfidation of ZnO NPs alters the behavior, fate, and toxicity of ZnO NPs in the environment. The reactivity and fate of the resulting <5 nm ZnS particles remains to be determined.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, USA.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

Language

eng

PubMed ID

23425191

Citation

Ma, Rui, et al. "Sulfidation Mechanism for Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles and the Effect of Sulfidation On Their Solubility." Environmental Science & Technology, vol. 47, no. 6, 2013, pp. 2527-34.
Ma R, Levard C, Michel FM, et al. Sulfidation mechanism for zinc oxide nanoparticles and the effect of sulfidation on their solubility. Environ Sci Technol. 2013;47(6):2527-34.
Ma, R., Levard, C., Michel, F. M., Brown, G. E., & Lowry, G. V. (2013). Sulfidation mechanism for zinc oxide nanoparticles and the effect of sulfidation on their solubility. Environmental Science & Technology, 47(6), 2527-34. https://doi.org/10.1021/es3035347
Ma R, et al. Sulfidation Mechanism for Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles and the Effect of Sulfidation On Their Solubility. Environ Sci Technol. 2013 Mar 19;47(6):2527-34. PubMed PMID: 23425191.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Sulfidation mechanism for zinc oxide nanoparticles and the effect of sulfidation on their solubility. AU - Ma,Rui, AU - Levard,Clément, AU - Michel,F Marc, AU - Brown,Gordon E,Jr AU - Lowry,Gregory V, Y1 - 2013/03/07/ PY - 2013/2/22/entrez PY - 2013/2/22/pubmed PY - 2014/3/22/medline SP - 2527 EP - 34 JF - Environmental science & technology JO - Environ. Sci. Technol. VL - 47 IS - 6 N2 - Environmental transformations of nanoparticles (NPs) affect their properties and toxicity potential. Sulfidation is an important transformation process affecting the fate of NPs containing metal cations with an affinity for sulfide. Here, the extent and mechanism of sulfidation of ZnO NPs were investigated, and the properties of resulting products were carefully characterized. Synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis reveal that transformation of ZnO to ZnS occurs readily at ambient temperature in the presence of inorganic sulfide. The extent of sulfidation depends on sulfide concentration, and close to 100% conversion can be obtained in 5 days given sufficient addition of sulfide. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy showed formation of primarily ZnS NPs smaller than 5 nm, indicating that sulfidation of ZnO NPs occurs by a dissolution and reprecipitation mechanism. The solubility of partially sulfidized ZnO NPs is controlled by the remaining ZnO core and not quenched by a ZnS shell formed as was observed for partially sulfidized Ag NPs. Sulfidation also led to NP aggregation and a decrease of surface charge. These changes suggest that sulfidation of ZnO NPs alters the behavior, fate, and toxicity of ZnO NPs in the environment. The reactivity and fate of the resulting <5 nm ZnS particles remains to be determined. SN - 1520-5851 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/23425191/Sulfidation_mechanism_for_zinc_oxide_nanoparticles_and_the_effect_of_sulfidation_on_their_solubility_ L2 - https://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es3035347 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -
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