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Effects of magnesium taurate on the onset and progression of galactose-induced experimental cataract: in vivo and in vitro evaluation.
Exp Eye Res. 2013 May; 110:35-43.EE

Abstract

Cataract, a leading cause of blindness, is characterized by lenticular opacities resulting from denaturation of lens proteins due to activation of calcium-dependent enzyme, calpain. Magnesium (Mg(2+)) plays an important role not only in maintaining a low lenticular calcium (Ca(2+)) and sodium concentration but also in preserving the lens redox status. Taurine has also been shown to reduce lenticular oxidative stress. Present study evaluated the anticataract effects of magnesium taurate in vivo and in vitro. Among the five groups of 9 Sprague Dawley rats each, two groups received 30% galactose diet with topical (GDMT) or oral treatment (GDMO) with magnesium taurate. Two groups received 30% galactose diet with topical (GDT) or oral vehicle (GDO). Remaining 1 group received normal diet (ND). Weekly slit lamp examination was done during 21 days experimental period and then all rats were sacrificed; Ca/Mg ratio and antioxidant parameters including reduced glutathione (GSH), catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were measured in the isolated lenses using ELISA. In the in vitro study, 2 groups of 10 normal rat lenses were incubated in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium (DMEM) with galactose while 1 similar group was incubated in DMEM without galactose. In one of the groups, galactose containing medium was supplemented with magnesium taurate. After 48 h of incubation, lenses were photographed and Ca(2+)/Mg(2+) ratio and antioxidant parameters were measured as for in vivo study. The in vivo study, at the end of experimental period, demonstrated delay in the development of cataract with a mean opacity index of 0.53 ± 0.04 and 0.51 ± 0.03 in GDMO (p < 0.05 versus GDO) and GDMT (p < 0.01 versus GDT) respectively. Histopathological grading showed a lower mean value in treated groups, however, the differences from corresponding controls were not significant. Lenticular Ca(2+)/Mg(2+) ratio with a mean value of 1.20 ± 0.26 and 1.05 ± 0.26 in GDMO and GDMT was significantly lower than corresponding controls (p < 0.05) and in GDMT no significant difference was observed from ND. Lenticular GSH and catalase activities were significantly lower and SOD activity was significantly higher in all galactose fed groups. However, in GDMT, GSH and catalase were significantly higher than corresponding control with mean values of 0.96 ± 0.30 μmol/gm lens weight and 56.98 ± 9.86 μmol/g lens protein respectively (p < 0.05 for GSH and p < 0.01 for catalase). SOD activity with mean values of 13.05 ± 6.35 and 13.27 ± 7.61 units/mg lens protein in GDMO and GDMT respectively was significantly lower compared to corresponding controls (p < 0.05) signifying lesser upregulation of SOD due to lesser oxidative stress in treated groups. In the in vitro study, lenses incubated in magnesium taurate containing medium showed less opacity and a lower mean Ca(2+)/Mg(2+) ratio of 1.64 ± 0.03, which was not significantly different from lenses incubated in DMEM without galactose. Lens GSH and catalase activities were restored to normal in lenses incubated in magnesium taurate containing medium. Both in vivo and in vitro studies demonstrated that treatment with magnesium taurate delays the onset and progression of cataract in galactose fed rats by restoring the lens Ca(2+)/Mg(2+) ratio and lens redox status.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Universiti Teknologi MARA, Faculty of Medicine, Level 20, Tower 1, Science & Technology Complex, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

23428743

Citation

Agarwal, Renu, et al. "Effects of Magnesium Taurate On the Onset and Progression of Galactose-induced Experimental Cataract: in Vivo and in Vitro Evaluation." Experimental Eye Research, vol. 110, 2013, pp. 35-43.
Agarwal R, Iezhitsa I, Awaludin NA, et al. Effects of magnesium taurate on the onset and progression of galactose-induced experimental cataract: in vivo and in vitro evaluation. Exp Eye Res. 2013;110:35-43.
Agarwal, R., Iezhitsa, I., Awaludin, N. A., Ahmad Fisol, N. F., Bakar, N. S., Agarwal, P., Abdul Rahman, T. H., Spasov, A., Ozerov, A., Mohamed Ahmed Salama, M. S., & Mohd Ismail, N. (2013). Effects of magnesium taurate on the onset and progression of galactose-induced experimental cataract: in vivo and in vitro evaluation. Experimental Eye Research, 110, 35-43. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.exer.2013.02.011
Agarwal R, et al. Effects of Magnesium Taurate On the Onset and Progression of Galactose-induced Experimental Cataract: in Vivo and in Vitro Evaluation. Exp Eye Res. 2013;110:35-43. PubMed PMID: 23428743.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Effects of magnesium taurate on the onset and progression of galactose-induced experimental cataract: in vivo and in vitro evaluation. AU - Agarwal,Renu, AU - Iezhitsa,Igor, AU - Awaludin,Nur Adilah, AU - Ahmad Fisol,Nur Farhana, AU - Bakar,Nor Salmah, AU - Agarwal,Puneet, AU - Abdul Rahman,Thuhairah Hasrah, AU - Spasov,Alexander, AU - Ozerov,Alexander, AU - Mohamed Ahmed Salama,Mohamed Salama, AU - Mohd Ismail,Nafeeza, Y1 - 2013/02/18/ PY - 2012/10/08/received PY - 2013/02/07/revised PY - 2013/02/08/accepted PY - 2013/2/23/entrez PY - 2013/2/23/pubmed PY - 2013/7/3/medline SP - 35 EP - 43 JF - Experimental eye research JO - Exp Eye Res VL - 110 N2 - Cataract, a leading cause of blindness, is characterized by lenticular opacities resulting from denaturation of lens proteins due to activation of calcium-dependent enzyme, calpain. Magnesium (Mg(2+)) plays an important role not only in maintaining a low lenticular calcium (Ca(2+)) and sodium concentration but also in preserving the lens redox status. Taurine has also been shown to reduce lenticular oxidative stress. Present study evaluated the anticataract effects of magnesium taurate in vivo and in vitro. Among the five groups of 9 Sprague Dawley rats each, two groups received 30% galactose diet with topical (GDMT) or oral treatment (GDMO) with magnesium taurate. Two groups received 30% galactose diet with topical (GDT) or oral vehicle (GDO). Remaining 1 group received normal diet (ND). Weekly slit lamp examination was done during 21 days experimental period and then all rats were sacrificed; Ca/Mg ratio and antioxidant parameters including reduced glutathione (GSH), catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were measured in the isolated lenses using ELISA. In the in vitro study, 2 groups of 10 normal rat lenses were incubated in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium (DMEM) with galactose while 1 similar group was incubated in DMEM without galactose. In one of the groups, galactose containing medium was supplemented with magnesium taurate. After 48 h of incubation, lenses were photographed and Ca(2+)/Mg(2+) ratio and antioxidant parameters were measured as for in vivo study. The in vivo study, at the end of experimental period, demonstrated delay in the development of cataract with a mean opacity index of 0.53 ± 0.04 and 0.51 ± 0.03 in GDMO (p < 0.05 versus GDO) and GDMT (p < 0.01 versus GDT) respectively. Histopathological grading showed a lower mean value in treated groups, however, the differences from corresponding controls were not significant. Lenticular Ca(2+)/Mg(2+) ratio with a mean value of 1.20 ± 0.26 and 1.05 ± 0.26 in GDMO and GDMT was significantly lower than corresponding controls (p < 0.05) and in GDMT no significant difference was observed from ND. Lenticular GSH and catalase activities were significantly lower and SOD activity was significantly higher in all galactose fed groups. However, in GDMT, GSH and catalase were significantly higher than corresponding control with mean values of 0.96 ± 0.30 μmol/gm lens weight and 56.98 ± 9.86 μmol/g lens protein respectively (p < 0.05 for GSH and p < 0.01 for catalase). SOD activity with mean values of 13.05 ± 6.35 and 13.27 ± 7.61 units/mg lens protein in GDMO and GDMT respectively was significantly lower compared to corresponding controls (p < 0.05) signifying lesser upregulation of SOD due to lesser oxidative stress in treated groups. In the in vitro study, lenses incubated in magnesium taurate containing medium showed less opacity and a lower mean Ca(2+)/Mg(2+) ratio of 1.64 ± 0.03, which was not significantly different from lenses incubated in DMEM without galactose. Lens GSH and catalase activities were restored to normal in lenses incubated in magnesium taurate containing medium. Both in vivo and in vitro studies demonstrated that treatment with magnesium taurate delays the onset and progression of cataract in galactose fed rats by restoring the lens Ca(2+)/Mg(2+) ratio and lens redox status. SN - 1096-0007 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/23428743/Effects_of_magnesium_taurate_on_the_onset_and_progression_of_galactose_induced_experimental_cataract:_in_vivo_and_in_vitro_evaluation_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0014-4835(13)00047-X DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -