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Sources and risk factors for lead exposure in indigenous children of the Peruvian Amazon, disentangling connections with oil activity.
Int J Occup Environ Health. 2012 Oct-Dec; 18(4):268-77.IJ

Abstract

INTRODUCTION

In the Corrientes river basin, Peruvian Amazon, lead exposure among indigenous communities was first reported in 2006. To address controversy regarding the main source of exposure, this study aimed to identify the sources and risk factors for lead exposure among children from the communities in question, and to clarify the potential relationship with oil activity.

METHODS

This cross-sectional study was conducted in six communities. Participants were children aged 0-17 years and their mothers. Data collection included blood lead levels (BLLs) and hemoglobin determination, a questionnaire on risk factors and environmental sampling. We used age-stratified multivariate regression models, with generalized estimating equation to account for correlation within households.

RESULTS

Twenty-seven percent of the children had BLLs ≥10 μg/dl. Mother's BLLs ≥10 μg/dl, playing and chewing lead scraps, fishing ≥three times/week, and living in highly oil-exposed communities increased the risk of having BLLs ≥10 μg/dl. Lead concentrations in sediment, soil, dust, and fish samples were below reference values.

CONCLUSIONS

Mother's BLLs ≥10 μg/dl, playing and chewing lead scraps to manufacture fishing sinkers were the most important risk factors for children's BLLs ≥10 μg/dl. The connection with oil activity appears to be through access to metal lead from the industry's wastes.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umea University, Sweden. cynthiaanticona@hotmail.comNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

23433287

Citation

Anticona, Cynthia, et al. "Sources and Risk Factors for Lead Exposure in Indigenous Children of the Peruvian Amazon, Disentangling Connections With Oil Activity." International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, vol. 18, no. 4, 2012, pp. 268-77.
Anticona C, Bergdahl IA, San Sebastian M. Sources and risk factors for lead exposure in indigenous children of the Peruvian Amazon, disentangling connections with oil activity. Int J Occup Environ Health. 2012;18(4):268-77.
Anticona, C., Bergdahl, I. A., & San Sebastian, M. (2012). Sources and risk factors for lead exposure in indigenous children of the Peruvian Amazon, disentangling connections with oil activity. International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, 18(4), 268-77. https://doi.org/10.1179/2049396712Y.0000000008
Anticona C, Bergdahl IA, San Sebastian M. Sources and Risk Factors for Lead Exposure in Indigenous Children of the Peruvian Amazon, Disentangling Connections With Oil Activity. Int J Occup Environ Health. 2012 Oct-Dec;18(4):268-77. PubMed PMID: 23433287.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Sources and risk factors for lead exposure in indigenous children of the Peruvian Amazon, disentangling connections with oil activity. AU - Anticona,Cynthia, AU - Bergdahl,Ingvar A, AU - San Sebastian,Miguel, PY - 2013/2/26/entrez PY - 2013/2/26/pubmed PY - 2013/7/10/medline SP - 268 EP - 77 JF - International journal of occupational and environmental health JO - Int J Occup Environ Health VL - 18 IS - 4 N2 - INTRODUCTION: In the Corrientes river basin, Peruvian Amazon, lead exposure among indigenous communities was first reported in 2006. To address controversy regarding the main source of exposure, this study aimed to identify the sources and risk factors for lead exposure among children from the communities in question, and to clarify the potential relationship with oil activity. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted in six communities. Participants were children aged 0-17 years and their mothers. Data collection included blood lead levels (BLLs) and hemoglobin determination, a questionnaire on risk factors and environmental sampling. We used age-stratified multivariate regression models, with generalized estimating equation to account for correlation within households. RESULTS: Twenty-seven percent of the children had BLLs ≥10 μg/dl. Mother's BLLs ≥10 μg/dl, playing and chewing lead scraps, fishing ≥three times/week, and living in highly oil-exposed communities increased the risk of having BLLs ≥10 μg/dl. Lead concentrations in sediment, soil, dust, and fish samples were below reference values. CONCLUSIONS: Mother's BLLs ≥10 μg/dl, playing and chewing lead scraps to manufacture fishing sinkers were the most important risk factors for children's BLLs ≥10 μg/dl. The connection with oil activity appears to be through access to metal lead from the industry's wastes. SN - 1077-3525 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/23433287/Sources_and_risk_factors_for_lead_exposure_in_indigenous_children_of_the_Peruvian_Amazon_disentangling_connections_with_oil_activity_ L2 - https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1179/2049396712Y.0000000008 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -