G-quadruplex folds of the human telomere sequence alter the site reactivity and reaction pathway of guanine oxidation compared to duplex DNA.Chem Res Toxicol 2013; 26(4):593-607CR
Telomere shortening occurs during oxidative and inflammatory stress with guanine (G) as the major site of damage. In this work, a comprehensive profile of the sites of oxidation and structures of products observed from G-quadruplex and duplex structures of the human telomere sequence was studied in the G-quadruplex folds (hybrid (K(+)), basket (Na(+)), and propeller (K(+) + 50% CH3CN)) resulting from the sequence 5'-(TAGGGT)4T-3' and in an appropriate duplex containing one telomere repeat. Oxidations with four oxidant systems consisting of riboflavin photosensitization, carbonate radical generation, singlet oxygen, and the copper Fenton-like reaction were analyzed under conditions of low product conversion to determine relative reactivity. The one-electron oxidants damaged the 5'-G in G-quadruplexes leading to spiroiminodihydantoin (Sp) and 2,2,4-triamino-2H-oxazol-5-one (Z) as major products as well as 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (OG) and 5-guanidinohydantoin (Gh) in low relative yields, while oxidation in the duplex context produced damage at the 5'- and middle-Gs of GGG sequences and resulted in Gh being the major product. Addition of the reductant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) to the reaction did not alter the riboflavin-mediated damage sites but decreased Z by 2-fold and increased OG by 5-fold, while not altering the hydantoin ratio. However, NAC completely quenched the CO3(•-) reactions. Singlet oxygen oxidations of the G-quadruplex showed reactivity at all Gs on the exterior faces of G-quartets and furnished the product Sp, while no oxidation was observed in the duplex context under these conditions, and addition of NAC had no effect. Because a long telomere sequence would have higher-order structures of G-quadruplexes, studies were also conducted with 5'-(TAGGGT)8-T-3', and it provided oxidation profiles similar to those of the single G-quadruplex. Lastly, Cu(II)/H2O2-mediated oxidations were found to be indiscriminate in the damage patterns, and 5-carboxamido-5-formamido-2-iminohydantoin (2Ih) was found to be a major duplex product, while nearly equal yields of 2Ih and Sp were observed in G-quadruplex contexts. These findings indicate that the nature of the secondary structure of folded DNA greatly alters both the reactivity of G toward oxidative stress as well as the product outcome and suggest that recognition of damage in telomeric sequences by repair enzymes may be profoundly different from that of B-form duplex DNA.