Assessment of deformities of the lip and nose in cleft lip alveolus and palate patients by a rating scale.J Maxillofac Oral Surg 2012; 11(1):38-46JM
Labial and nasal deformities have always been a fundamental problem in the treatment of cleft lip, alveolus and palate patients. The primary surgical treatment of nasolabial area is of paramount importance in order to obtain both an esthetical correction of the deformity and a progressive and a balanced development of mid-face. In this study the nasal deformities in patients with cleft lip, alveolus and palate (CLAP) were analyzed and the relevant role of the perinasal, perioral muscular balance and the inborn dislocation of the alar cartilages are presented.
PATIENTS AND METHODS
50 CLAP patients were analyzed, 40 UCLP and 10BCLP. The lip repair was done by modification of Millard's technique. The severity of the cleft appearance was evaluated pre and post operatively, according to a pre-agreed visual rating scale. There are 4° of severity of the deformity pre operatively (mild, moderate, severe and very severe) and post operatively 5 categories of outcome (excellent,very good, good, satisfactory and poor), depending on the scores obtained by summing up the points corresponding to different types of deformity. This scale is closely related to the American Cleft Palate classification of clefts.
In the 40 UCLP patients, 8 excellent, 10 very good, 16 good and 6 satisfactory results were obtained following primary cheiloplasty. In 10 BCLP patients 1 very good, 7 good, 1 satisfactory and 1 poor result were obtained.
During the primary repair, it is important to correct the abnormal position of ala nasi, the nasal floor and the base of the columella. Abnormalities in the insertion of the nasolabial muscles with their abnormal function contribute to the cleft nose deformities. Therefore the reconstruction not only the orbicularis muscle but also of the paranasal muscles is therefore important for a symmetrical growth of the nose. Separate suture of intrinsic orbicularis oris provide a better shape to the vermillion. The position of the alar cartilage plays an important role for the symmetry of the nose. It is necessary to place the alar base symmetrically in three dimensions.