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The effects of heat stress and plane of nutrition on metabolism in growing pigs.
J Anim Sci. 2013 May; 91(5):2108-18.JA

Abstract

Heat stress (HS) jeopardizes pig health, reduces performance variables, and results in a fatter carcass. Whether HS directly or indirectly (via reduced feed intake) is responsible for the suboptimal production is not known. Crossbred gilts (n = 48; 35 ± 4 kg BW) were housed in constantly climate-controlled rooms in individual pens and exposed to 1) thermal-neutral (TN) conditions (20°C; 35% to 50% humidity) with ad libitum intake (n = 18), 2) HS conditions (35°C; 20% to 35% humidity) with ad libitum intake (n = 24), or 3) pair-fed [PF in TN conditions (PFTN), n = 6, to eliminate confounding effects of dissimilar feed intake (FI)]. Pigs in the TN and HS conditions were sacrificed at 1, 3, or 7 d of environmental exposure, whereas the PFTN pigs were sacrificed after 7 d of experimental conditions. Individual rectal temperature (Tr), skin temperature (Ts), respiration rates (RR), and FI were determined daily. Pigs exposed to HS had an increase (P < 0.01) in Tr (39.3°C vs. 40.8°C) and a doubling in RR (54 vs. 107 breaths per minute). Heat-stressed pigs had an immediate (d 1) decrease (47%; P < 0.05) in FI, and this magnitude of reduction continued through d 7; by design the nutrient intake pattern for the PFTN controls mirrored the HS group. By d 7, the TN and HS pigs gained 7.76 and 1.65 kg BW, respectively, whereas the PFTN pigs lost 2.47 kg BW. Plasma insulin was increased (49%; P < 0.05) in d 7 HS pigs compared with PFTN controls. Compared with TN and HS pigs, on d 7 PFTN pigs had increased plasma NEFA concentrations (110%; P < 0.05). Compared with TN and PFTN controls, on d 7 circulating N(τ)-methylhistidine concentrations were increased (31%; P < 0.05) in HS pigs. In summary, despite similar nutrient intake, HS pigs gained more BW and had distinctly different postabsorptive bioenergetic variables compared with PFTN controls. Consequently, these heat-induced metabolic changes may in part explain the altered carcass phenotype observed in heat-stressed pigs.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Animal Science, Iowa State University, Ames, IO 50011, USA.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

23463563

Citation

Pearce, S C., et al. "The Effects of Heat Stress and Plane of Nutrition On Metabolism in Growing Pigs." Journal of Animal Science, vol. 91, no. 5, 2013, pp. 2108-18.
Pearce SC, Gabler NK, Ross JW, et al. The effects of heat stress and plane of nutrition on metabolism in growing pigs. J Anim Sci. 2013;91(5):2108-18.
Pearce, S. C., Gabler, N. K., Ross, J. W., Escobar, J., Patience, J. F., Rhoads, R. P., & Baumgard, L. H. (2013). The effects of heat stress and plane of nutrition on metabolism in growing pigs. Journal of Animal Science, 91(5), 2108-18. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2012-5738
Pearce SC, et al. The Effects of Heat Stress and Plane of Nutrition On Metabolism in Growing Pigs. J Anim Sci. 2013;91(5):2108-18. PubMed PMID: 23463563.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - The effects of heat stress and plane of nutrition on metabolism in growing pigs. AU - Pearce,S C, AU - Gabler,N K, AU - Ross,J W, AU - Escobar,J, AU - Patience,J F, AU - Rhoads,R P, AU - Baumgard,L H, Y1 - 2013/03/05/ PY - 2013/3/7/entrez PY - 2013/3/7/pubmed PY - 2014/2/20/medline SP - 2108 EP - 18 JF - Journal of animal science JO - J Anim Sci VL - 91 IS - 5 N2 - Heat stress (HS) jeopardizes pig health, reduces performance variables, and results in a fatter carcass. Whether HS directly or indirectly (via reduced feed intake) is responsible for the suboptimal production is not known. Crossbred gilts (n = 48; 35 ± 4 kg BW) were housed in constantly climate-controlled rooms in individual pens and exposed to 1) thermal-neutral (TN) conditions (20°C; 35% to 50% humidity) with ad libitum intake (n = 18), 2) HS conditions (35°C; 20% to 35% humidity) with ad libitum intake (n = 24), or 3) pair-fed [PF in TN conditions (PFTN), n = 6, to eliminate confounding effects of dissimilar feed intake (FI)]. Pigs in the TN and HS conditions were sacrificed at 1, 3, or 7 d of environmental exposure, whereas the PFTN pigs were sacrificed after 7 d of experimental conditions. Individual rectal temperature (Tr), skin temperature (Ts), respiration rates (RR), and FI were determined daily. Pigs exposed to HS had an increase (P < 0.01) in Tr (39.3°C vs. 40.8°C) and a doubling in RR (54 vs. 107 breaths per minute). Heat-stressed pigs had an immediate (d 1) decrease (47%; P < 0.05) in FI, and this magnitude of reduction continued through d 7; by design the nutrient intake pattern for the PFTN controls mirrored the HS group. By d 7, the TN and HS pigs gained 7.76 and 1.65 kg BW, respectively, whereas the PFTN pigs lost 2.47 kg BW. Plasma insulin was increased (49%; P < 0.05) in d 7 HS pigs compared with PFTN controls. Compared with TN and HS pigs, on d 7 PFTN pigs had increased plasma NEFA concentrations (110%; P < 0.05). Compared with TN and PFTN controls, on d 7 circulating N(τ)-methylhistidine concentrations were increased (31%; P < 0.05) in HS pigs. In summary, despite similar nutrient intake, HS pigs gained more BW and had distinctly different postabsorptive bioenergetic variables compared with PFTN controls. Consequently, these heat-induced metabolic changes may in part explain the altered carcass phenotype observed in heat-stressed pigs. SN - 1525-3163 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/23463563/The_effects_of_heat_stress_and_plane_of_nutrition_on_metabolism_in_growing_pigs_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/jas/article-lookup/doi/10.2527/jas.2012-5738 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -