Very low protein diet reduces indoxyl sulfate levels in chronic kidney disease.Blood Purif. 2013; 35(1-3):196-201.BP
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES
High levels of indoxyl sulfate (IS) are associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression and increased mortality in CKD patients. The aim of this pilot study was to assess whether a very low protein diet (VLPD; 0.3 g/kg bw/day), with a consequent low phosphorus intake, would reduce IS serum levels compared to a low protein diet (LPD; 0.6 g/kg bw/day) in CKD patients not yet on dialysis.
MATERIAL AND METHODS
This is a post hoc analysis of a preceding cross-over study aimed to analyze FGF23 during VLPD. Here we performed a prospective randomized controlled crossover study in which 32 patients were randomized to receive either a VLPD (0.3 g/kg bw/day) supplemented with ketoanalogues during the first week and an LPD during the second week (group A, n = 16), or an LPD during the first week and a VLPD during the second week (group B, n = 16 patients). IS serum levels were measured at baseline and at the end of each study period. We compared them to 24 hemodialysis patients (HD) and 14 healthy subjects (control).
IS serum concentration was significantly higher in the HD (43.4 ± 12.3 µM) and CKD (11.1 ± 6.6 µM) groups compared to the control group (2.9 ± 1.1 µM; p < 0.001). IS levels also correlated with creatinine values in CKD patients (R(2) = 0.42; p < 0.0001). After only 1 week of a VLPD, even preceded by an LPD, CKD patients showed a significant reduction of IS serum levels (37%).
VLPD supplemented with ketoanalogues reduced IS serum levels in CKD patients not yet on dialysis.