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Prevalence and energy intake from snacking in Brazil: analysis of the first nationwide individual survey.
Eur J Clin Nutr. 2013 Aug; 67(8):868-74.EJ

Abstract

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES

Snacking has increased globally. We examine snacking patterns and common snack foods in Brazil.

SUBJECTS/METHODS

Data from the first of two non-consecutive food diaries from 34,003 individuals (aged ≥ 10 years) in the first Brazillian nationally representative dietary survey (2008-2009) were used. Meals were defined as the largest (kcal) eating event reported during select times of the day (Breakfast, 0600-1000 hours; Lunch, 1200-1500 hours; Dinner, 1800-2100 hours); all other eating occasions were considered snacks. We estimate daily energy intake, percentage of persons consuming snacks, number of daily snacks and per capita and per consumer energy from snacks (kcal/day, kcal/snack and % of daily energy from snacks).

RESULTS

In all, 74% of Brazilians (≥ 10 years) snacked, reporting an average 1.6 snacks/day. Also, 23% of the sample were heavy snackers (≥ 3 snacks/day). Snacking accounted for 21% of daily energy intake in the full sample but 35.5% among heavy snackers. Compared with non-snackers (1548 kcal/day), light (1-2 snacks/day) and heavy snackers consumed more daily energy (1929 and 2334 kcal/day, respectively). Taking into account time of day, the largest percentage of persons reported afternoon/early evening snacking (1501-1759 hours, 47.7%). Sweetened coffee and tea, sweets and desserts, fruit, sugar-sweetened beverages, and high-calorie salgados (fried/baked dough with meat/cheese/vegetable) were the top five most commonly consumed snacks. Differences were observed by age groups. Trends in commercial sales were observed, especially for sugar-sweetened beverages.

CONCLUSIONS

Many commonly consumed snack foods in Brazil are classified, in the US, as being high in solid fats and added sugars. The public health impact of snacking in Brazil requires further exploration.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Nutrition, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA. kduffey@unc.eduNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

23486510

Citation

Duffey, K J., et al. "Prevalence and Energy Intake From Snacking in Brazil: Analysis of the First Nationwide Individual Survey." European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 67, no. 8, 2013, pp. 868-74.
Duffey KJ, Pereira RA, Popkin BM. Prevalence and energy intake from snacking in Brazil: analysis of the first nationwide individual survey. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2013;67(8):868-74.
Duffey, K. J., Pereira, R. A., & Popkin, B. M. (2013). Prevalence and energy intake from snacking in Brazil: analysis of the first nationwide individual survey. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 67(8), 868-74. https://doi.org/10.1038/ejcn.2013.60
Duffey KJ, Pereira RA, Popkin BM. Prevalence and Energy Intake From Snacking in Brazil: Analysis of the First Nationwide Individual Survey. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2013;67(8):868-74. PubMed PMID: 23486510.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Prevalence and energy intake from snacking in Brazil: analysis of the first nationwide individual survey. AU - Duffey,K J, AU - Pereira,R A, AU - Popkin,B M, Y1 - 2013/03/13/ PY - 2012/08/13/received PY - 2013/02/07/revised PY - 2013/02/08/accepted PY - 2013/3/15/entrez PY - 2013/3/15/pubmed PY - 2014/2/22/medline SP - 868 EP - 74 JF - European journal of clinical nutrition JO - Eur J Clin Nutr VL - 67 IS - 8 N2 - BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Snacking has increased globally. We examine snacking patterns and common snack foods in Brazil. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Data from the first of two non-consecutive food diaries from 34,003 individuals (aged ≥ 10 years) in the first Brazillian nationally representative dietary survey (2008-2009) were used. Meals were defined as the largest (kcal) eating event reported during select times of the day (Breakfast, 0600-1000 hours; Lunch, 1200-1500 hours; Dinner, 1800-2100 hours); all other eating occasions were considered snacks. We estimate daily energy intake, percentage of persons consuming snacks, number of daily snacks and per capita and per consumer energy from snacks (kcal/day, kcal/snack and % of daily energy from snacks). RESULTS: In all, 74% of Brazilians (≥ 10 years) snacked, reporting an average 1.6 snacks/day. Also, 23% of the sample were heavy snackers (≥ 3 snacks/day). Snacking accounted for 21% of daily energy intake in the full sample but 35.5% among heavy snackers. Compared with non-snackers (1548 kcal/day), light (1-2 snacks/day) and heavy snackers consumed more daily energy (1929 and 2334 kcal/day, respectively). Taking into account time of day, the largest percentage of persons reported afternoon/early evening snacking (1501-1759 hours, 47.7%). Sweetened coffee and tea, sweets and desserts, fruit, sugar-sweetened beverages, and high-calorie salgados (fried/baked dough with meat/cheese/vegetable) were the top five most commonly consumed snacks. Differences were observed by age groups. Trends in commercial sales were observed, especially for sugar-sweetened beverages. CONCLUSIONS: Many commonly consumed snack foods in Brazil are classified, in the US, as being high in solid fats and added sugars. The public health impact of snacking in Brazil requires further exploration. SN - 1476-5640 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/23486510/Prevalence_and_energy_intake_from_snacking_in_Brazil:_analysis_of_the_first_nationwide_individual_survey_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1038/ejcn.2013.60 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -