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Interaction of inflammatory and anti-inflammatory responses in microglia by Staphylococcus aureus-derived lipoteichoic acid.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2013; 269(1):43-50TA

Abstract

We investigated the interaction between proinflammatory and inflammatory responses caused by Staphylococcus aureus-derived lipoteichoic acid (LTA) in primary cultured microglial cells and BV-2 microglia. LTA induced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein levels increase in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Meanwhile, LTA also increased nitric oxide (NO) and PGE2 production in microglia. Administration of TLR2 antagonist effectively inhibited LTA-induced NO, iNOS, and COX-2 expression. Moreover, treatment of cells with LTA caused a time-dependent activation of ERK, p38, JNK, as well as AKT. We also found that LTA-induced iNOS and COX-2 up-regulation were attenuated by p38, JNK, and PI3-kinase inhibitors. On the other hand, LTA-enhanced HO-1 expression was attenuated by p38 and PI3-kinase inhibitors. Treatment of cells with NF-κB and AP-1 inhibitors antagonized LTA-induced iNOS and COX-2 expression. However, only NF-κB inhibitors reduced LTA-induced HO-1 expression in microglia. Furthermore, stimulation of cells with LTA also activated IκBα phosphorylation, p65 phosphorylation at Ser⁵³⁶, and c-Jun phosphorylation. Moreover, LTA-induced increases of κB-DNA and AP-1-DNA binding activity were inhibited by p38, JNK, and PI3-kinase inhibitors. HO-1 activator CoPP IX dramatically reversed LTA-induced iNOS expression. Our results provided mechanisms linking LTA and inflammation/anti-inflammation, and indicated that LTA plays a regulatory role in microglia activation.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Neurosurgery, Buddhist Tzu Chi General Hospital, Taichung Branch, Taichung, Taiwan.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

23500011

Citation

Huang, Bor-Ren, et al. "Interaction of Inflammatory and Anti-inflammatory Responses in Microglia By Staphylococcus Aureus-derived Lipoteichoic Acid." Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, vol. 269, no. 1, 2013, pp. 43-50.
Huang BR, Tsai CF, Lin HY, et al. Interaction of inflammatory and anti-inflammatory responses in microglia by Staphylococcus aureus-derived lipoteichoic acid. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2013;269(1):43-50.
Huang, B. R., Tsai, C. F., Lin, H. Y., Tseng, W. P., Huang, S. S., Wu, C. R., ... Lu, D. Y. (2013). Interaction of inflammatory and anti-inflammatory responses in microglia by Staphylococcus aureus-derived lipoteichoic acid. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 269(1), pp. 43-50. doi:10.1016/j.taap.2013.03.004.
Huang BR, et al. Interaction of Inflammatory and Anti-inflammatory Responses in Microglia By Staphylococcus Aureus-derived Lipoteichoic Acid. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2013 May 15;269(1):43-50. PubMed PMID: 23500011.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Interaction of inflammatory and anti-inflammatory responses in microglia by Staphylococcus aureus-derived lipoteichoic acid. AU - Huang,Bor-Ren, AU - Tsai,Cheng-Fang, AU - Lin,Hsiao-Yun, AU - Tseng,Wen-Pei, AU - Huang,Shiang-Suo, AU - Wu,Chi-Rei, AU - Lin,Chingju, AU - Yeh,Wei-Lan, AU - Lu,Dah-Yuu, Y1 - 2013/03/14/ PY - 2012/12/10/received PY - 2013/02/25/revised PY - 2013/03/05/accepted PY - 2013/3/19/entrez PY - 2013/3/19/pubmed PY - 2013/6/12/medline SP - 43 EP - 50 JF - Toxicology and applied pharmacology JO - Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. VL - 269 IS - 1 N2 - We investigated the interaction between proinflammatory and inflammatory responses caused by Staphylococcus aureus-derived lipoteichoic acid (LTA) in primary cultured microglial cells and BV-2 microglia. LTA induced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein levels increase in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Meanwhile, LTA also increased nitric oxide (NO) and PGE2 production in microglia. Administration of TLR2 antagonist effectively inhibited LTA-induced NO, iNOS, and COX-2 expression. Moreover, treatment of cells with LTA caused a time-dependent activation of ERK, p38, JNK, as well as AKT. We also found that LTA-induced iNOS and COX-2 up-regulation were attenuated by p38, JNK, and PI3-kinase inhibitors. On the other hand, LTA-enhanced HO-1 expression was attenuated by p38 and PI3-kinase inhibitors. Treatment of cells with NF-κB and AP-1 inhibitors antagonized LTA-induced iNOS and COX-2 expression. However, only NF-κB inhibitors reduced LTA-induced HO-1 expression in microglia. Furthermore, stimulation of cells with LTA also activated IκBα phosphorylation, p65 phosphorylation at Ser⁵³⁶, and c-Jun phosphorylation. Moreover, LTA-induced increases of κB-DNA and AP-1-DNA binding activity were inhibited by p38, JNK, and PI3-kinase inhibitors. HO-1 activator CoPP IX dramatically reversed LTA-induced iNOS expression. Our results provided mechanisms linking LTA and inflammation/anti-inflammation, and indicated that LTA plays a regulatory role in microglia activation. SN - 1096-0333 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/23500011/Interaction_of_inflammatory_and_anti_inflammatory_responses_in_microglia_by_Staphylococcus_aureus_derived_lipoteichoic_acid_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0041-008X(13)00094-X DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -