Clinical findings and management of imported cutaneous leishmaniasis: report of 14 cases from Austria.Travel Med Infect Dis. 2013 Mar-Apr; 11(2):90-4.TM
The management of cutaneous leishmaniasis in non-endemic countries is challenging due to the wide variety of clinical manifestations and little information available on treatment modalities for travellers.
Retrospective analysis and follow-up investigation in patients with imported cutaneous leishmaniasis managed at the General Hospital Vienna from 2004 to 2010.
In total, 14 patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis were analyzed. The time to diagnosis ranged between weeks and several months and up to four consultations were necessary before diagnosis was accomplished. Histological investigations performed in all patients were diagnostic for CL in 8 (57%) patients. PCR analyses were performed in 12 patients and were positive in 10 (83%) patients. All six patients with negative histological results for CL tested positive in the PCR analysis. Treatment regimens applied included systemic therapy with liposomal amphotericin B, miltefosine, or fluconazole, and local therapy with cryotherapy, paromomycin ointment, photodynamic therapy, surgery, and various combinations.
The present analysis strongly suggests that awareness of CL among physicians and travellers remains low and highlights the need to harmonize diagnostic and treatment guidelines for cutaneous and mucosal leishmaniasis in European travellers. Diagnostic outcome can be improved by combining histology and PCR in patients with suspected cutaneous leishmaniasis.