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Adult medication-free schizophrenic patients exhibit long-chain omega-3 Fatty Acid deficiency: implications for cardiovascular disease risk.
Cardiovasc Psychiatry Neurol 2013; 2013:796462CP

Abstract

Deficiency in long-chain omega-3 (LCn - 3) fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n - 3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n - 3), has been implicated in the pathoetiology of cardiovascular disease, a primary cause of excess premature mortality in patients with schizophrenia (SZ). In the present study, we determined erythrocyte EPA + DHA levels in adult medication-free patients SZ (n = 20) and age-matched healthy controls (n = 24). Erythrocyte EPA + DHA composition exhibited by SZ patients (3.5%) was significantly lower than healthy controls (4.5%, -22%, P = 0.007). The majority of SZ patients (72%) exhibited EPA+DHA levels ≤4.0% compared with 37% of controls (Chi-square, P = 0.001). In contrast, the omega-6 fatty acid arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n - 6) (+9%, P = 0.02) and the AA:EPA + DHA ratio (+28%, P = 0.0004) were significantly greater in SZ patients. Linoleic acid (18:2n - 6) was significantly lower (-12%, P = 0.009) and the erythrocyte 20:3/18:2 ratio (an index of delta6-desaturase activity) was significantly elevated in SZ patients. Compared with same-gender controls, EPA + DHA composition was significantly lower in male (-19%, P = 0.04) but not female (-13%, P = 0.33) SZ patients, whereas the 20:3/18:2 ratio was significantly elevated in both male (+22%, P = 0.008) and female (+22%, P = 0.04) SZ patients. These results suggest that the majority of SZ patients exhibit low LCn - 3 fatty acid levels which may place them at increased risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Psychiatry, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH 45219-0516, USA.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

23533712

Citation

McNamara, Robert K., et al. "Adult Medication-free Schizophrenic Patients Exhibit Long-chain Omega-3 Fatty Acid Deficiency: Implications for Cardiovascular Disease Risk." Cardiovascular Psychiatry and Neurology, vol. 2013, 2013, p. 796462.
McNamara RK, Jandacek R, Rider T, et al. Adult medication-free schizophrenic patients exhibit long-chain omega-3 Fatty Acid deficiency: implications for cardiovascular disease risk. Cardiovasc Psychiatry Neurol. 2013;2013:796462.
McNamara, R. K., Jandacek, R., Rider, T., Tso, P., Dwivedi, Y., & Pandey, G. N. (2013). Adult medication-free schizophrenic patients exhibit long-chain omega-3 Fatty Acid deficiency: implications for cardiovascular disease risk. Cardiovascular Psychiatry and Neurology, 2013, p. 796462. doi:10.1155/2013/796462.
McNamara RK, et al. Adult Medication-free Schizophrenic Patients Exhibit Long-chain Omega-3 Fatty Acid Deficiency: Implications for Cardiovascular Disease Risk. Cardiovasc Psychiatry Neurol. 2013;2013:796462. PubMed PMID: 23533712.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Adult medication-free schizophrenic patients exhibit long-chain omega-3 Fatty Acid deficiency: implications for cardiovascular disease risk. AU - McNamara,Robert K, AU - Jandacek,Ronald, AU - Rider,Therese, AU - Tso,Patrick, AU - Dwivedi,Yogesh, AU - Pandey,Ghanshyam N, Y1 - 2013/02/27/ PY - 2012/07/20/received PY - 2013/01/17/accepted PY - 2013/3/28/entrez PY - 2013/3/28/pubmed PY - 2013/3/28/medline SP - 796462 EP - 796462 JF - Cardiovascular psychiatry and neurology JO - Cardiovasc Psychiatry Neurol VL - 2013 N2 - Deficiency in long-chain omega-3 (LCn - 3) fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n - 3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n - 3), has been implicated in the pathoetiology of cardiovascular disease, a primary cause of excess premature mortality in patients with schizophrenia (SZ). In the present study, we determined erythrocyte EPA + DHA levels in adult medication-free patients SZ (n = 20) and age-matched healthy controls (n = 24). Erythrocyte EPA + DHA composition exhibited by SZ patients (3.5%) was significantly lower than healthy controls (4.5%, -22%, P = 0.007). The majority of SZ patients (72%) exhibited EPA+DHA levels ≤4.0% compared with 37% of controls (Chi-square, P = 0.001). In contrast, the omega-6 fatty acid arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n - 6) (+9%, P = 0.02) and the AA:EPA + DHA ratio (+28%, P = 0.0004) were significantly greater in SZ patients. Linoleic acid (18:2n - 6) was significantly lower (-12%, P = 0.009) and the erythrocyte 20:3/18:2 ratio (an index of delta6-desaturase activity) was significantly elevated in SZ patients. Compared with same-gender controls, EPA + DHA composition was significantly lower in male (-19%, P = 0.04) but not female (-13%, P = 0.33) SZ patients, whereas the 20:3/18:2 ratio was significantly elevated in both male (+22%, P = 0.008) and female (+22%, P = 0.04) SZ patients. These results suggest that the majority of SZ patients exhibit low LCn - 3 fatty acid levels which may place them at increased risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. SN - 2090-0163 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/23533712/Adult_medication_free_schizophrenic_patients_exhibit_long_chain_omega_3_Fatty_Acid_deficiency:_implications_for_cardiovascular_disease_risk_ L2 - https://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/796462 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -