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The effect of age and recent influenza vaccination history on the immunogenicity and efficacy of 2009-10 seasonal trivalent inactivated influenza vaccination in children.

Abstract

BACKGROUND

There is some evidence that annual vaccination of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) may lead to reduced vaccine immunogenicity but evidence is lacking on whether vaccine efficacy is affected by prior vaccination history. The efficacy of one dose of TIV in children 6-8 y of age against influenza B is uncertain. We examined whether immunogenicity and efficacy of influenza vaccination in school-age children varied by age and past vaccination history.

METHODS AND FINDINGS

We conducted a randomized controlled trial of 2009-10 TIV. Influenza vaccination history in the two preceding years was recorded. Immunogenicity was assessed by comparison of HI titers before and one month after receipt of TIV/placebo. Subjects were followed up for 11 months with symptom diaries, and respiratory specimens were collected during acute respiratory illnesses to permit confirmation of influenza virus infections. We found that previous vaccination was associated with reduced antibody responses to TIV against seasonal A(H1N1) and A(H3N2) particularly in children 9-17 y of age, but increased antibody responses to the same lineage of influenza B virus in children 6-8 y of age. Serological responses to the influenza A vaccine viruses were high regardless of vaccination history. One dose of TIV appeared to be efficacious against confirmed influenza B in children 6-8 y of age regardless of vaccination history.

CONCLUSIONS

Prior vaccination was associated with lower antibody titer rises following vaccination against seasonal influenza A vaccine viruses, but higher responses to influenza B among individuals primed with viruses from the same lineage in preceding years. In a year in which influenza B virus predominated, no impact of prior vaccination history was observed on vaccine efficacy against influenza B. The strains that circulated in the year of study did not allow us to study the effect of prior vaccination on vaccine efficacy against influenza A.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    School of Public Health, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China.

    , , , , , ,

    Source

    PloS one 8:3 2013 pg e59077

    MeSH

    Adolescent
    Antibodies, Viral
    Child
    Female
    Humans
    Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype
    Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype
    Influenza B virus
    Influenza Vaccines
    Influenza, Human
    Male
    Seasons
    Time Factors
    Vaccination
    Vaccines, Inactivated

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    23554974

    Citation

    Ng, Sophia, et al. "The Effect of Age and Recent Influenza Vaccination History On the Immunogenicity and Efficacy of 2009-10 Seasonal Trivalent Inactivated Influenza Vaccination in Children." PloS One, vol. 8, no. 3, 2013, pp. e59077.
    Ng S, Ip DK, Fang VJ, et al. The effect of age and recent influenza vaccination history on the immunogenicity and efficacy of 2009-10 seasonal trivalent inactivated influenza vaccination in children. PLoS ONE. 2013;8(3):e59077.
    Ng, S., Ip, D. K., Fang, V. J., Chan, K. H., Chiu, S. S., Leung, G. M., ... Cowling, B. J. (2013). The effect of age and recent influenza vaccination history on the immunogenicity and efficacy of 2009-10 seasonal trivalent inactivated influenza vaccination in children. PloS One, 8(3), pp. e59077. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0059077.
    Ng S, et al. The Effect of Age and Recent Influenza Vaccination History On the Immunogenicity and Efficacy of 2009-10 Seasonal Trivalent Inactivated Influenza Vaccination in Children. PLoS ONE. 2013;8(3):e59077. PubMed PMID: 23554974.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - The effect of age and recent influenza vaccination history on the immunogenicity and efficacy of 2009-10 seasonal trivalent inactivated influenza vaccination in children. AU - Ng,Sophia, AU - Ip,Dennis K M, AU - Fang,Vicky J, AU - Chan,Kwok-Hung, AU - Chiu,Susan S, AU - Leung,Gabriel M, AU - Peiris,J S Malik, AU - Cowling,Benjamin J, Y1 - 2013/03/12/ PY - 2012/12/18/received PY - 2013/02/11/accepted PY - 2013/4/5/entrez PY - 2013/4/5/pubmed PY - 2013/10/18/medline SP - e59077 EP - e59077 JF - PloS one JO - PLoS ONE VL - 8 IS - 3 N2 - BACKGROUND: There is some evidence that annual vaccination of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) may lead to reduced vaccine immunogenicity but evidence is lacking on whether vaccine efficacy is affected by prior vaccination history. The efficacy of one dose of TIV in children 6-8 y of age against influenza B is uncertain. We examined whether immunogenicity and efficacy of influenza vaccination in school-age children varied by age and past vaccination history. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a randomized controlled trial of 2009-10 TIV. Influenza vaccination history in the two preceding years was recorded. Immunogenicity was assessed by comparison of HI titers before and one month after receipt of TIV/placebo. Subjects were followed up for 11 months with symptom diaries, and respiratory specimens were collected during acute respiratory illnesses to permit confirmation of influenza virus infections. We found that previous vaccination was associated with reduced antibody responses to TIV against seasonal A(H1N1) and A(H3N2) particularly in children 9-17 y of age, but increased antibody responses to the same lineage of influenza B virus in children 6-8 y of age. Serological responses to the influenza A vaccine viruses were high regardless of vaccination history. One dose of TIV appeared to be efficacious against confirmed influenza B in children 6-8 y of age regardless of vaccination history. CONCLUSIONS: Prior vaccination was associated with lower antibody titer rises following vaccination against seasonal influenza A vaccine viruses, but higher responses to influenza B among individuals primed with viruses from the same lineage in preceding years. In a year in which influenza B virus predominated, no impact of prior vaccination history was observed on vaccine efficacy against influenza B. The strains that circulated in the year of study did not allow us to study the effect of prior vaccination on vaccine efficacy against influenza A. SN - 1932-6203 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/23554974/The_effect_of_age_and_recent_influenza_vaccination_history_on_the_immunogenicity_and_efficacy_of_2009_10_seasonal_trivalent_inactivated_influenza_vaccination_in_children_ L2 - http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0059077 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -