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Zoonotic and foodborne transmission of hepatitis E virus.
Semin Liver Dis. 2013 Feb; 33(1):41-9.SL

Abstract

Hepatitis E is an important disease in many developing countries of Asia and Africa with large explosive outbreaks and is also endemic with sporadic or cluster cases of hepatitis in many industrialized countries. The causative agent, hepatitis E virus (HEV), is currently classified in the family Hepeviridae. Thus far, four putative genera of HEV representing mammalian, avian, and fish species have been identified and characterized worldwide. Within the mammalian HEV that infects humans, genotypes 1 and 2 are associated with epidemics and restricted to humans, whereas genotypes 3 and 4 are zoonotic and associated with sporadic and cluster cases of hepatitis E. As a fecal-orally transmitted disease, waterborne transmission is still an important route of HEV transmission especially for large outbreaks associated with genotypes 1 and 2. However, genetic identification of numerous animal strains of HEV and the demonstrated ability of cross-species infection by these animal strains have significantly broadened the host range and diversity of HEV and raised public health concerns for zoonosis and food safety associated with genotypes 3 and 4 HEV infection. Pigs and likely other animal species serve as reservoirs for HEV. Direct contact with infected pigs and other animals and consumption of contaminated animal meat and meat products pose risks for HEV infection. In this article, the current understanding of the zoonotic and foodborne transmissions of HEV as well as strategies to prevent zoonosis and ensure food safety is discussed.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Biomedical Sciences and Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia, USA. xjmeng@vt.edu

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

23564388

Citation

Meng, Xiang-Jin. "Zoonotic and Foodborne Transmission of Hepatitis E Virus." Seminars in Liver Disease, vol. 33, no. 1, 2013, pp. 41-9.
Meng XJ. Zoonotic and foodborne transmission of hepatitis E virus. Semin Liver Dis. 2013;33(1):41-9.
Meng, X. J. (2013). Zoonotic and foodborne transmission of hepatitis E virus. Seminars in Liver Disease, 33(1), 41-9. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0033-1338113
Meng XJ. Zoonotic and Foodborne Transmission of Hepatitis E Virus. Semin Liver Dis. 2013;33(1):41-9. PubMed PMID: 23564388.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Zoonotic and foodborne transmission of hepatitis E virus. A1 - Meng,Xiang-Jin, Y1 - 2013/04/05/ PY - 2013/4/9/entrez PY - 2013/4/9/pubmed PY - 2013/11/1/medline SP - 41 EP - 9 JF - Seminars in liver disease JO - Semin Liver Dis VL - 33 IS - 1 N2 - Hepatitis E is an important disease in many developing countries of Asia and Africa with large explosive outbreaks and is also endemic with sporadic or cluster cases of hepatitis in many industrialized countries. The causative agent, hepatitis E virus (HEV), is currently classified in the family Hepeviridae. Thus far, four putative genera of HEV representing mammalian, avian, and fish species have been identified and characterized worldwide. Within the mammalian HEV that infects humans, genotypes 1 and 2 are associated with epidemics and restricted to humans, whereas genotypes 3 and 4 are zoonotic and associated with sporadic and cluster cases of hepatitis E. As a fecal-orally transmitted disease, waterborne transmission is still an important route of HEV transmission especially for large outbreaks associated with genotypes 1 and 2. However, genetic identification of numerous animal strains of HEV and the demonstrated ability of cross-species infection by these animal strains have significantly broadened the host range and diversity of HEV and raised public health concerns for zoonosis and food safety associated with genotypes 3 and 4 HEV infection. Pigs and likely other animal species serve as reservoirs for HEV. Direct contact with infected pigs and other animals and consumption of contaminated animal meat and meat products pose risks for HEV infection. In this article, the current understanding of the zoonotic and foodborne transmissions of HEV as well as strategies to prevent zoonosis and ensure food safety is discussed. SN - 1098-8971 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/23564388/Zoonotic_and_foodborne_transmission_of_hepatitis_E_virus_ L2 - http://www.thieme-connect.com/DOI/DOI?10.1055/s-0033-1338113 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -