Atovaquone and proguanil hydrochloride for treatment of malaria.J Travel Med. 1999 May; 6 Suppl 1:S18-20.JT
Safe and effective new drugs are needed for treatment of malaria. Atovaquone and proguanil hydrochloride is a new antimalarial combination that has recently become available in many countries.
Data from clinical trials evaluating atovaquone/proguanil for treatment of malaria were reviewed.
In 10 open-label clinical trials, treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria with 1000 mg atovaquone and 400 mg proguanil hydrochloride (or the equivalent based on body weight in patients < or = 40 kg) once daily for 3 days achieved cure in 514 of 521 (99%) evaluable patients. Treatment-limiting adverse events occurred in < 1% of patients (vomiting in four, anaphylaxis in one). Atovaquone/proguanil has been used to provide radical cure of asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum infections prior to initiation of placebo-controlled trials of malaria prophylaxis. Recurrent parasitemia occurred within 28 days in 0 of 99 subjects who subsequently received prophylaxis with atovaquone/proguanil and 1 of 81 subjects who subsequently received placebo. Atovaquone/proguanil is also effective for treatment of malaria caused by the other three Plasmodium species that cause malaria in humans. For treatment of vivax malaria, therapy with primaquine in addition to atovaquone/proguanil is needed to prevent relapse from latent hepatic hypnozoites.
Atovaquone and proguanil hydrochloride is a safe and effective combination for treatment of malaria.