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The role of menaquinones (vitamin K₂) in human health.

Abstract

Recent reports have attributed the potential health benefits of vitamin K beyond its function to activate hepatic coagulation factors. Moreover, several studies have suggested that menaquinones, also known as vitamin K2, may be more effective in activating extra-hepatic vitamin K-dependent proteins than phylloquinone, also known as vitamin K1. Nevertheless, present dietary reference values (DRV) for vitamin K are exclusively based on phylloquinone, and its function in coagulation. The present review describes the current knowledge on menaquinones based on the following criteria for setting DRV: optimal dietary intake; nutrient amount required to prevent deficiency, maintain optimal body stores and/or prevent chronic disease; factors influencing requirements such as absorption, metabolism, age and sex. Dietary intake of menaquinones accounts for up to 25% of total vitamin K intake and contributes to the biological functions of vitamin K. However, menaquinones are different from phylloquinone with respect to their chemical structure and pharmacokinetics, which affects bioavailability, metabolism and perhaps impact on health outcomes. There are significant gaps in the current knowledge on menaquinones based on the criteria for setting DRV. Therefore, we conclude that further investigations are needed to establish how differences among the vitamin K forms may influence tissue specificities and their role in human health. However, there is merit for considering both menaquinones and phylloquinone when developing future recommendations for vitamin K intake.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

    , , , ,

    Source

    The British journal of nutrition 110:8 2013 Oct pg 1357-68

    MeSH

    Absorption
    Animals
    Bacteria
    Biological Availability
    Blood Coagulation
    Bone and Bones
    Cardiovascular Diseases
    Diet
    Humans
    Recommended Dietary Allowances
    Reference Values
    Vitamin K 1
    Vitamin K 2
    Vitamins

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
    Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
    Review

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    23590754

    Citation

    Beulens, Joline W J., et al. "The Role of Menaquinones (vitamin K₂) in Human Health." The British Journal of Nutrition, vol. 110, no. 8, 2013, pp. 1357-68.
    Beulens JW, Booth SL, van den Heuvel EG, et al. The role of menaquinones (vitamin K₂) in human health. Br J Nutr. 2013;110(8):1357-68.
    Beulens, J. W., Booth, S. L., van den Heuvel, E. G., Stoecklin, E., Baka, A., & Vermeer, C. (2013). The role of menaquinones (vitamin K₂) in human health. The British Journal of Nutrition, 110(8), pp. 1357-68. doi:10.1017/S0007114513001013.
    Beulens JW, et al. The Role of Menaquinones (vitamin K₂) in Human Health. Br J Nutr. 2013;110(8):1357-68. PubMed PMID: 23590754.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - The role of menaquinones (vitamin K₂) in human health. AU - Beulens,Joline W J, AU - Booth,Sarah L, AU - van den Heuvel,Ellen G H M, AU - Stoecklin,Elisabeth, AU - Baka,Athanasia, AU - Vermeer,Cees, Y1 - 2013/04/16/ PY - 2013/4/18/entrez PY - 2013/4/18/pubmed PY - 2014/1/23/medline SP - 1357 EP - 68 JF - The British journal of nutrition JO - Br. J. Nutr. VL - 110 IS - 8 N2 - Recent reports have attributed the potential health benefits of vitamin K beyond its function to activate hepatic coagulation factors. Moreover, several studies have suggested that menaquinones, also known as vitamin K2, may be more effective in activating extra-hepatic vitamin K-dependent proteins than phylloquinone, also known as vitamin K1. Nevertheless, present dietary reference values (DRV) for vitamin K are exclusively based on phylloquinone, and its function in coagulation. The present review describes the current knowledge on menaquinones based on the following criteria for setting DRV: optimal dietary intake; nutrient amount required to prevent deficiency, maintain optimal body stores and/or prevent chronic disease; factors influencing requirements such as absorption, metabolism, age and sex. Dietary intake of menaquinones accounts for up to 25% of total vitamin K intake and contributes to the biological functions of vitamin K. However, menaquinones are different from phylloquinone with respect to their chemical structure and pharmacokinetics, which affects bioavailability, metabolism and perhaps impact on health outcomes. There are significant gaps in the current knowledge on menaquinones based on the criteria for setting DRV. Therefore, we conclude that further investigations are needed to establish how differences among the vitamin K forms may influence tissue specificities and their role in human health. However, there is merit for considering both menaquinones and phylloquinone when developing future recommendations for vitamin K intake. SN - 1475-2662 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/23590754/The_role_of_menaquinones__vitamin_K₂__in_human_health_ L2 - https://www.cambridge.org/core/product/identifier/S0007114513001013/type/journal_article DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -