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The role of menaquinones (vitamin K₂) in human health.
Br J Nutr 2013; 110(8):1357-68BJ

Abstract

Recent reports have attributed the potential health benefits of vitamin K beyond its function to activate hepatic coagulation factors. Moreover, several studies have suggested that menaquinones, also known as vitamin K2, may be more effective in activating extra-hepatic vitamin K-dependent proteins than phylloquinone, also known as vitamin K1. Nevertheless, present dietary reference values (DRV) for vitamin K are exclusively based on phylloquinone, and its function in coagulation. The present review describes the current knowledge on menaquinones based on the following criteria for setting DRV: optimal dietary intake; nutrient amount required to prevent deficiency, maintain optimal body stores and/or prevent chronic disease; factors influencing requirements such as absorption, metabolism, age and sex. Dietary intake of menaquinones accounts for up to 25% of total vitamin K intake and contributes to the biological functions of vitamin K. However, menaquinones are different from phylloquinone with respect to their chemical structure and pharmacokinetics, which affects bioavailability, metabolism and perhaps impact on health outcomes. There are significant gaps in the current knowledge on menaquinones based on the criteria for setting DRV. Therefore, we conclude that further investigations are needed to establish how differences among the vitamin K forms may influence tissue specificities and their role in human health. However, there is merit for considering both menaquinones and phylloquinone when developing future recommendations for vitamin K intake.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

23590754

Citation

Beulens, Joline W J., et al. "The Role of Menaquinones (vitamin K₂) in Human Health." The British Journal of Nutrition, vol. 110, no. 8, 2013, pp. 1357-68.
Beulens JW, Booth SL, van den Heuvel EG, et al. The role of menaquinones (vitamin K₂) in human health. Br J Nutr. 2013;110(8):1357-68.
Beulens, J. W., Booth, S. L., van den Heuvel, E. G., Stoecklin, E., Baka, A., & Vermeer, C. (2013). The role of menaquinones (vitamin K₂) in human health. The British Journal of Nutrition, 110(8), pp. 1357-68. doi:10.1017/S0007114513001013.
Beulens JW, et al. The Role of Menaquinones (vitamin K₂) in Human Health. Br J Nutr. 2013;110(8):1357-68. PubMed PMID: 23590754.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - The role of menaquinones (vitamin K₂) in human health. AU - Beulens,Joline W J, AU - Booth,Sarah L, AU - van den Heuvel,Ellen G H M, AU - Stoecklin,Elisabeth, AU - Baka,Athanasia, AU - Vermeer,Cees, Y1 - 2013/04/16/ PY - 2013/4/18/entrez PY - 2013/4/18/pubmed PY - 2014/1/23/medline SP - 1357 EP - 68 JF - The British journal of nutrition JO - Br. J. Nutr. VL - 110 IS - 8 N2 - Recent reports have attributed the potential health benefits of vitamin K beyond its function to activate hepatic coagulation factors. Moreover, several studies have suggested that menaquinones, also known as vitamin K2, may be more effective in activating extra-hepatic vitamin K-dependent proteins than phylloquinone, also known as vitamin K1. Nevertheless, present dietary reference values (DRV) for vitamin K are exclusively based on phylloquinone, and its function in coagulation. The present review describes the current knowledge on menaquinones based on the following criteria for setting DRV: optimal dietary intake; nutrient amount required to prevent deficiency, maintain optimal body stores and/or prevent chronic disease; factors influencing requirements such as absorption, metabolism, age and sex. Dietary intake of menaquinones accounts for up to 25% of total vitamin K intake and contributes to the biological functions of vitamin K. However, menaquinones are different from phylloquinone with respect to their chemical structure and pharmacokinetics, which affects bioavailability, metabolism and perhaps impact on health outcomes. There are significant gaps in the current knowledge on menaquinones based on the criteria for setting DRV. Therefore, we conclude that further investigations are needed to establish how differences among the vitamin K forms may influence tissue specificities and their role in human health. However, there is merit for considering both menaquinones and phylloquinone when developing future recommendations for vitamin K intake. SN - 1475-2662 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/23590754/The_role_of_menaquinones__vitamin_K₂__in_human_health_ L2 - https://www.cambridge.org/core/product/identifier/S0007114513001013/type/journal_article DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -