Tags

Type your tag names separated by a space and hit enter

Independent and combined effects of eating rate and energy density on energy intake, appetite, and gut hormones.
Obesity (Silver Spring). 2013 Mar; 21(3):E244-52.O

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

Energy density (ED) and eating rate (ER) influence energy intake; their combined effects on intake and on postprandial pancreatic and gut hormone responses are undetermined. To determine the combined effects of ED and ER manipulation on voluntary food intake, subjective appetite, and postprandial pancreatic and gut hormone responses.

DESIGN AND METHODS

Twenty nonobese volunteers each consumed high (1.6 kcal g(-1) ; HED) and low (1.2 kcal g(-1) ; LED) ED breakfasts slowly (20 g min(-1) ; SR) and quickly (80 g min(-1) ; FR) ad libitum to satiation. Appetite, and pancreatic and gut hormone concentrations were measured periodically over 3 h. Ad libitum energy intake during the subsequent lunch was then measured.

RESULTS

Main effects of ED and ER on energy intake and a main effect of ER, but not ED, on mass of food consumed were observed, FR and HED being associated with increased intake (P < 0.05). Across all conditions, energy intake was highest during FR-HED (P ≤ 0.01). Area under the curve (AUC) of appetite ratings was not different between meals. Main effects of ED and ER on insulin, peptide-YY, and glucagon-like peptide-1 AUC (P < 0.05) were observed, FR and HED being associated with larger AUC. No effects on active or total ghrelin AUC were documented. Total energy intake over both meals was highest during the FR-HED trial with the greatest difference between FR-HED and SR-LED trials (P ≤ 0.01).

CONCLUSION

Consuming an energy dense meal quickly compounds independent effects of ER and ED on energy intake. Energy compensation at the following meal may not occur despite altered gut hormone responses.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Military Nutrition Division, US Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Natick, Massachusetts, USA. james.p.karl@us.army.milNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

Language

eng

PubMed ID

23592679

Citation

Karl, J Philip, et al. "Independent and Combined Effects of Eating Rate and Energy Density On Energy Intake, Appetite, and Gut Hormones." Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.), vol. 21, no. 3, 2013, pp. E244-52.
Karl JP, Young AJ, Rood JC, et al. Independent and combined effects of eating rate and energy density on energy intake, appetite, and gut hormones. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2013;21(3):E244-52.
Karl, J. P., Young, A. J., Rood, J. C., & Montain, S. J. (2013). Independent and combined effects of eating rate and energy density on energy intake, appetite, and gut hormones. Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.), 21(3), E244-52. https://doi.org/10.1002/oby.20075
Karl JP, et al. Independent and Combined Effects of Eating Rate and Energy Density On Energy Intake, Appetite, and Gut Hormones. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2013;21(3):E244-52. PubMed PMID: 23592679.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Independent and combined effects of eating rate and energy density on energy intake, appetite, and gut hormones. AU - Karl,J Philip, AU - Young,Andrew J, AU - Rood,Jennifer C, AU - Montain,Scott J, PY - 2012/02/13/received PY - 2012/06/02/revised PY - 2012/08/27/accepted PY - 2013/4/18/entrez PY - 2013/4/18/pubmed PY - 2013/12/24/medline SP - E244 EP - 52 JF - Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.) JO - Obesity (Silver Spring) VL - 21 IS - 3 N2 - OBJECTIVE: Energy density (ED) and eating rate (ER) influence energy intake; their combined effects on intake and on postprandial pancreatic and gut hormone responses are undetermined. To determine the combined effects of ED and ER manipulation on voluntary food intake, subjective appetite, and postprandial pancreatic and gut hormone responses. DESIGN AND METHODS: Twenty nonobese volunteers each consumed high (1.6 kcal g(-1) ; HED) and low (1.2 kcal g(-1) ; LED) ED breakfasts slowly (20 g min(-1) ; SR) and quickly (80 g min(-1) ; FR) ad libitum to satiation. Appetite, and pancreatic and gut hormone concentrations were measured periodically over 3 h. Ad libitum energy intake during the subsequent lunch was then measured. RESULTS: Main effects of ED and ER on energy intake and a main effect of ER, but not ED, on mass of food consumed were observed, FR and HED being associated with increased intake (P < 0.05). Across all conditions, energy intake was highest during FR-HED (P ≤ 0.01). Area under the curve (AUC) of appetite ratings was not different between meals. Main effects of ED and ER on insulin, peptide-YY, and glucagon-like peptide-1 AUC (P < 0.05) were observed, FR and HED being associated with larger AUC. No effects on active or total ghrelin AUC were documented. Total energy intake over both meals was highest during the FR-HED trial with the greatest difference between FR-HED and SR-LED trials (P ≤ 0.01). CONCLUSION: Consuming an energy dense meal quickly compounds independent effects of ER and ED on energy intake. Energy compensation at the following meal may not occur despite altered gut hormone responses. SN - 1930-739X UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/23592679/Independent_and_combined_effects_of_eating_rate_and_energy_density_on_energy_intake_appetite_and_gut_hormones_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1002/oby.20075 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -