TREM-2 promotes host resistance against Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection by suppressing corneal inflammation via a PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2013; 54(5):3451-62IO
To explore the role of triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM-2) in Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) keratitis.
BALB/c mice were routinely infected with PA and evaluated at various postinfection time points for corneal expression of TREM-2, by real-time PCR, Western blot, and flow cytometry. Next, BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice were respectively treated with TREM-2 siRNA or agonistic anti-TREM-2 antibody, to determine the role of TREM-2 in PA keratitis. Bacterial load and neutrophil infiltration were tested by plate count and myeloperoxidase assay, respectively. Th1-/Th2-type and proinflammatory cytokine expression were tested by real-time PCR and ELISA after in vivo and in vitro silencing of TREM-2. Moreover, phosphorylated Akt levels were tested by Western blot in murine macrophages after treatment with agonistic anti-TREM-2 antibody. mRNA levels of proinflammatory cytokines were examined in murine macrophages after TREM-2 activation and lipopolysaccharide stimulation, following pretreatment with inhibitors for PI3K or Akt, to determine whether PI3K/Akt is required in TREM-2-mediated immune modulation. In addition, BALB/c mice were treated with wortmannin and analyzed for bacterial load and proinflammatory cytokine expression.
TREM-2 expression was elevated in the infected BALB/c corneas at 3 or 5 days postinfection. Silencing of TREM-2 accelerated disease progression by enhancing bacterial load and corneal inflammation, whereas activation of TREM-2 promoted host resistance to PA keratitis. PI3K/Akt signaling is required in the TREM-2-mediated immune modulation, and inhibition of PI3K resulted in worsened disease after PA corneal infection.
TREM-2 promoted host resistance to PA infection by suppressing corneal inflammation via activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway.