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Efficacy of a dose range of simulated sunlight exposures in raising vitamin D status in South Asian adults: implications for targeted guidance on sun exposure.
Am J Clin Nutr. 2013 Jun; 97(6):1210-6.AJ

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Vitamin D is essential for bone health, and cutaneous synthesis is an important source. South Asians cannot attain adequate amounts of vitamin D by following general recommendations on summer sunlight exposure at northerly latitudes, and increased exposure may be appropriate for improving their vitamin D status.

OBJECTIVE

We examined the efficacy of a dose range of simulated summer sunlight exposures in raising vitamin D status in UK adults of South Asian ethnicity.

DESIGN

In a dose-response study, healthy adults of South Asian ethnicity (n = 60; 20-60 y old) received 1 of 6 ultraviolet exposures ranging from 0.65 to 3.9 standard erythema doses (SEDs), which were equivalent to 15-90 min unshaded noontime summer sunlight at 53.5°N (Manchester, United Kingdom), 3 times/wk for 6 wk, while wearing casual clothes that revealed a 35% skin area. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] was measured weekly, and dietary vitamin D was estimated.

RESULTS

At baseline, all completing participants (n = 51) were vitamin D insufficient [25(OH)D concentrations <20 ng/mL], and a high proportion of participants were deficient [35% of subjects had 25(OH)D concentrations <5 ng/mL, and 90% of subjects had 25(OH)D concentrations <10 ng/mL, which are concentrations at which osteomalacia and rickets occur). The 25(OH)D concentration rose significantly in all dose groups. Postcourse, all participants achieved 25(OH)D concentrations ≥5 ng/mL, whereas only 6 subjects attained 25(OH)D concentrations ≥20 ng/mL. Participants who received exposures ≥1.95 SEDs (equivalent to 45 min unshaded sunlight; n = 33) attained a mean (±SD) 25(OH)D concentration of 15.7 ± 5 ng/mL (mean rise: 8.7 ± 5.7 ng/mL; 95% CI: 6.8, 10.6 ng/mL; P < 0.001), and 94% of subjects achieved concentrations >10 ng/mL.

CONCLUSIONS

Targeted guidance on sunlight exposure could usefully enhance vitamin D status to avoid deficiency [25(OH)D concentration >10 ng/mL] in South Asians living at latitudes distant from the equator. This trial was registered at the ISRCTN Register (www.isrctn.org) as 07565297.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Dermatology Centre, Institute of Inflammation and Repair, University of Manchester, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, Salford Royal National Health Service Foundation Trust, Manchester, United Kingdom.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Clinical Trial
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

23615828

Citation

Farrar, Mark D., et al. "Efficacy of a Dose Range of Simulated Sunlight Exposures in Raising Vitamin D Status in South Asian Adults: Implications for Targeted Guidance On Sun Exposure." The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 97, no. 6, 2013, pp. 1210-6.
Farrar MD, Webb AR, Kift R, et al. Efficacy of a dose range of simulated sunlight exposures in raising vitamin D status in South Asian adults: implications for targeted guidance on sun exposure. Am J Clin Nutr. 2013;97(6):1210-6.
Farrar, M. D., Webb, A. R., Kift, R., Durkin, M. T., Allan, D., Herbert, A., Berry, J. L., & Rhodes, L. E. (2013). Efficacy of a dose range of simulated sunlight exposures in raising vitamin D status in South Asian adults: implications for targeted guidance on sun exposure. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 97(6), 1210-6. https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.112.052639
Farrar MD, et al. Efficacy of a Dose Range of Simulated Sunlight Exposures in Raising Vitamin D Status in South Asian Adults: Implications for Targeted Guidance On Sun Exposure. Am J Clin Nutr. 2013;97(6):1210-6. PubMed PMID: 23615828.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Efficacy of a dose range of simulated sunlight exposures in raising vitamin D status in South Asian adults: implications for targeted guidance on sun exposure. AU - Farrar,Mark D, AU - Webb,Ann R, AU - Kift,Richard, AU - Durkin,Marie T, AU - Allan,Donald, AU - Herbert,Annie, AU - Berry,Jacqueline L, AU - Rhodes,Lesley E, Y1 - 2013/04/24/ PY - 2013/4/26/entrez PY - 2013/4/26/pubmed PY - 2013/7/17/medline SP - 1210 EP - 6 JF - The American journal of clinical nutrition JO - Am J Clin Nutr VL - 97 IS - 6 N2 - BACKGROUND: Vitamin D is essential for bone health, and cutaneous synthesis is an important source. South Asians cannot attain adequate amounts of vitamin D by following general recommendations on summer sunlight exposure at northerly latitudes, and increased exposure may be appropriate for improving their vitamin D status. OBJECTIVE: We examined the efficacy of a dose range of simulated summer sunlight exposures in raising vitamin D status in UK adults of South Asian ethnicity. DESIGN: In a dose-response study, healthy adults of South Asian ethnicity (n = 60; 20-60 y old) received 1 of 6 ultraviolet exposures ranging from 0.65 to 3.9 standard erythema doses (SEDs), which were equivalent to 15-90 min unshaded noontime summer sunlight at 53.5°N (Manchester, United Kingdom), 3 times/wk for 6 wk, while wearing casual clothes that revealed a 35% skin area. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] was measured weekly, and dietary vitamin D was estimated. RESULTS: At baseline, all completing participants (n = 51) were vitamin D insufficient [25(OH)D concentrations <20 ng/mL], and a high proportion of participants were deficient [35% of subjects had 25(OH)D concentrations <5 ng/mL, and 90% of subjects had 25(OH)D concentrations <10 ng/mL, which are concentrations at which osteomalacia and rickets occur). The 25(OH)D concentration rose significantly in all dose groups. Postcourse, all participants achieved 25(OH)D concentrations ≥5 ng/mL, whereas only 6 subjects attained 25(OH)D concentrations ≥20 ng/mL. Participants who received exposures ≥1.95 SEDs (equivalent to 45 min unshaded sunlight; n = 33) attained a mean (±SD) 25(OH)D concentration of 15.7 ± 5 ng/mL (mean rise: 8.7 ± 5.7 ng/mL; 95% CI: 6.8, 10.6 ng/mL; P < 0.001), and 94% of subjects achieved concentrations >10 ng/mL. CONCLUSIONS: Targeted guidance on sunlight exposure could usefully enhance vitamin D status to avoid deficiency [25(OH)D concentration >10 ng/mL] in South Asians living at latitudes distant from the equator. This trial was registered at the ISRCTN Register (www.isrctn.org) as 07565297. SN - 1938-3207 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/23615828/Efficacy_of_a_dose_range_of_simulated_sunlight_exposures_in_raising_vitamin_D_status_in_South_Asian_adults:_implications_for_targeted_guidance_on_sun_exposure_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article-lookup/doi/10.3945/ajcn.112.052639 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -