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Altered colonic mucosal availability of n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in ulcerative colitis and the relationship to disease activity.
J Crohns Colitis. 2014 Jan; 8(1):70-9.JC

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND AIMS

The polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) arachidonic acid (AA, n-6) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, n-3) are precursors of eicosanoids and other lipid mediators which have critical roles in inflammation. The mediators formed from the different PUFA have different potencies. We hypothesised that metabolic changes associated with colonic mucosal inflammation would modify the bioavailability of the eicosanoid precursors AA and EPA.

METHODS

Colonic mucosa biopsies were obtained from patients with ulcerative colitis and from matched controls. Inflammation was graded endoscopically and histologically. Esterified and non-esterified fatty acids were determined within the biopsies using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, respectively.

RESULTS

Biopsy samples were collected from 69 UC patients (54 providing both inflamed and non-inflamed mucosa) and 69 controls. Inflamed mucosa had higher AA (p<0.001) and lower EPA (p<0.010) contents and a higher AA:EPA ratio (p<0.001). Inflamed mucosa also had higher docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and lower linoleic acid (LA) and α-linolenic acid (α-LNA) contents (all p<0.001), compared to non-inflamed and controls. There were significant correlations between severity of inflammation and contents of AA, DPA and DHA (positive correlations) and of LA, α-LNA and EPA (negative correlations).

CONCLUSIONS

Higher AA, AA:EPA ratio, DPA and DHA and lower LA, α-LNA and EPA are seen in inflamed mucosa in UC and correlate with severity of inflammation. This suggests an alteration in fatty acid metabolism in the inflamed gut mucosa, which may offer novel targets for intervention and should be considered if nutritional strategies are used.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Gastroenterology, Portsmouth Hospitals NHS Trust, Portsmouth, United Kingdom. Electronic address: daniel.pearl@porthosp.nhs.uk.Elsie Widdowson Laboratory, MRC Human Nutrition Research, Cambridge, United Kingdom; Nestle Institute of Health Sciences, 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland.Elsie Widdowson Laboratory, MRC Human Nutrition Research, Cambridge, United Kingdom.Institute of Biomedical and Biomolecular Sciences, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, United Kingdom.Institute of Biomedical and Biomolecular Sciences, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, United Kingdom.Division of Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom.Department of Histopathology, Portsmouth Hospital NHS Trust, Portsmouth, United Kingdom.Department of Histopathology, Portsmouth Hospital NHS Trust, Portsmouth, United Kingdom.Institute of Biomedical and Biomolecular Sciences, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, United Kingdom.Institute of Biomedical and Biomolecular Sciences, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, United Kingdom.Institute of Biomedical and Biomolecular Sciences, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, United Kingdom.Human Development and Health Academic Unit, Faculty of Medicine, University of Southampton, Southampton, United Kingdom.Department of Gastroenterology, Portsmouth Hospitals NHS Trust, Portsmouth, United Kingdom.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

23619007

Citation

Pearl, Daniel S., et al. "Altered Colonic Mucosal Availability of N-3 and N-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Ulcerative Colitis and the Relationship to Disease Activity." Journal of Crohn's & Colitis, vol. 8, no. 1, 2014, pp. 70-9.
Pearl DS, Masoodi M, Eiden M, et al. Altered colonic mucosal availability of n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in ulcerative colitis and the relationship to disease activity. J Crohns Colitis. 2014;8(1):70-9.
Pearl, D. S., Masoodi, M., Eiden, M., Brümmer, J., Gullick, D., McKeever, T. M., Whittaker, M. A., Nitch-Smith, H., Brown, J. F., Shute, J. K., Mills, G., Calder, P. C., & Trebble, T. M. (2014). Altered colonic mucosal availability of n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in ulcerative colitis and the relationship to disease activity. Journal of Crohn's & Colitis, 8(1), 70-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.crohns.2013.03.013
Pearl DS, et al. Altered Colonic Mucosal Availability of N-3 and N-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Ulcerative Colitis and the Relationship to Disease Activity. J Crohns Colitis. 2014;8(1):70-9. PubMed PMID: 23619007.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Altered colonic mucosal availability of n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in ulcerative colitis and the relationship to disease activity. AU - Pearl,Daniel S, AU - Masoodi,Mojgan, AU - Eiden,Michael, AU - Brümmer,Janine, AU - Gullick,Darren, AU - McKeever,Tricia M, AU - Whittaker,Mark A, AU - Nitch-Smith,Harriet, AU - Brown,James F, AU - Shute,Janis K, AU - Mills,Graham, AU - Calder,Philip C, AU - Trebble,Timothy M, Y1 - 2013/04/23/ PY - 2013/01/15/received PY - 2013/03/05/revised PY - 2013/03/28/accepted PY - 2013/4/27/entrez PY - 2013/4/27/pubmed PY - 2014/9/18/medline KW - 5-ASA KW - 5-aminosalicylic acid KW - AA KW - Arachidonic acid KW - Cytokine KW - DHA KW - DPA KW - EI-SIM KW - EPA KW - Eicosanoid KW - Eicosapentaenoic acid KW - FA KW - GC/MS KW - HPLC KW - Inflammation KW - LA KW - LC/MS KW - LT KW - PG KW - PPARγ KW - PUFA KW - SPE KW - UC KW - alpha linolenic acid KW - arachidonic acid KW - docosahexaenoic acid KW - docosapentaenoic acid KW - eicosapentaenoic acid KW - electron impact selective ion monitoring KW - fatty acid KW - gas chromatography mass spectrometry KW - high performance liquid chromatography KW - leukotrienes KW - linoleic acid KW - liquid chromatography mass spectrometry KW - peroxisome proliferator activator receptor γ KW - polyunsaturated fatty acid KW - prostaglandins KW - solid phase extraction KW - ulcerative colitis KW - α-LNA SP - 70 EP - 9 JF - Journal of Crohn's & colitis JO - J Crohns Colitis VL - 8 IS - 1 N2 - BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) arachidonic acid (AA, n-6) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, n-3) are precursors of eicosanoids and other lipid mediators which have critical roles in inflammation. The mediators formed from the different PUFA have different potencies. We hypothesised that metabolic changes associated with colonic mucosal inflammation would modify the bioavailability of the eicosanoid precursors AA and EPA. METHODS: Colonic mucosa biopsies were obtained from patients with ulcerative colitis and from matched controls. Inflammation was graded endoscopically and histologically. Esterified and non-esterified fatty acids were determined within the biopsies using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, respectively. RESULTS: Biopsy samples were collected from 69 UC patients (54 providing both inflamed and non-inflamed mucosa) and 69 controls. Inflamed mucosa had higher AA (p<0.001) and lower EPA (p<0.010) contents and a higher AA:EPA ratio (p<0.001). Inflamed mucosa also had higher docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and lower linoleic acid (LA) and α-linolenic acid (α-LNA) contents (all p<0.001), compared to non-inflamed and controls. There were significant correlations between severity of inflammation and contents of AA, DPA and DHA (positive correlations) and of LA, α-LNA and EPA (negative correlations). CONCLUSIONS: Higher AA, AA:EPA ratio, DPA and DHA and lower LA, α-LNA and EPA are seen in inflamed mucosa in UC and correlate with severity of inflammation. This suggests an alteration in fatty acid metabolism in the inflamed gut mucosa, which may offer novel targets for intervention and should be considered if nutritional strategies are used. SN - 1876-4479 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/23619007/Altered_colonic_mucosal_availability_of_n_3_and_n_6_polyunsaturated_fatty_acids_in_ulcerative_colitis_and_the_relationship_to_disease_activity_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1873-9946(13)00137-2 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -