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Homocysteine, antioxidant micronutrients and late onset dementia.

Abstract

PURPOSE

To distinguish between contributions to dementia made by homocysteine, folate, B12 and antioxidant micronutrients.

METHODS

This is a follow-up study of a sample reported in 2002. Homocysteine was measured at baseline in 201 individuals born in 1921 and without dementia at age 77 years and followed up to age 88 years. Baseline macro- and micronutrient status was estimated from BMI, the MONICA food frequency questionnaire, plasma folate, B12 and, in a subgroup (N = 173), plasma antioxidant micronutrients. Time to dementia onset during follow-up was compared between participants grouped by homocysteine concentration using Cox regression. Model 1 adjusted for age, sex, childhood IQ, education, socioeconomic deprivation, presence of heart disease, hypertension, plasma folate and B12. In model 2 plasma, antioxidants were added to these covariables.

RESULTS

During a mean follow-up of about 5 years, there were 39 incident dementia cases among 201 participants. In model 1, being in the highest homocysteine group (>14 μmol/L) was associated with a 234 % increased risk (HR 3.34, 95 % CI 1.16-9.57) of any dementia. After inclusion of plasma antioxidants in model 2, there were 32 incident dementia cases from a subsample (N = 173). Homocysteine >14 μmol was associated with a 272 % increased dementia risk (HR = 3.72, 95 % CI 1.06-13.08).

CONCLUSIONS

High homocysteine increases the risk of dementia. The association between tHcy and dementia is independent of plasma folate, B12 and antioxidant micronutrient status.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Institute of Applied Health Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Polwarth Building, Foresterhill, Aberdeen, Scotland, AB25 2ZH, UK, l.j.whalley@abdn.ac.uk.

    , , , , , , ,

    Source

    European journal of nutrition 53:1 2014 Feb pg 277-85

    MeSH

    Aged
    Aged, 80 and over
    Antioxidants
    Body Mass Index
    Cognition
    Dementia
    Female
    Folic Acid
    Follow-Up Studies
    Homocysteine
    Humans
    Hyperhomocysteinemia
    Male
    Micronutrients
    Nutrition Assessment
    Proportional Hazards Models
    Risk Factors
    Socioeconomic Factors
    Surveys and Questionnaires
    Vitamin B 12

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    23625136

    Citation

    Whalley, Lawrence J., et al. "Homocysteine, Antioxidant Micronutrients and Late Onset Dementia." European Journal of Nutrition, vol. 53, no. 1, 2014, pp. 277-85.
    Whalley LJ, Duthie SJ, Collins AR, et al. Homocysteine, antioxidant micronutrients and late onset dementia. Eur J Nutr. 2014;53(1):277-85.
    Whalley, L. J., Duthie, S. J., Collins, A. R., Starr, J. M., Deary, I. J., Lemmon, H., ... Staff, R. T. (2014). Homocysteine, antioxidant micronutrients and late onset dementia. European Journal of Nutrition, 53(1), pp. 277-85. doi:10.1007/s00394-013-0526-6.
    Whalley LJ, et al. Homocysteine, Antioxidant Micronutrients and Late Onset Dementia. Eur J Nutr. 2014;53(1):277-85. PubMed PMID: 23625136.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Homocysteine, antioxidant micronutrients and late onset dementia. AU - Whalley,Lawrence J, AU - Duthie,Susan J, AU - Collins,Andrew R, AU - Starr,John M, AU - Deary,Ian J, AU - Lemmon,Helen, AU - Duthie,Ashleigh C, AU - Murray,Alison D, AU - Staff,Roger T, Y1 - 2013/04/27/ PY - 2013/02/08/received PY - 2013/04/15/accepted PY - 2013/4/30/entrez PY - 2013/4/30/pubmed PY - 2014/9/26/medline SP - 277 EP - 85 JF - European journal of nutrition JO - Eur J Nutr VL - 53 IS - 1 N2 - PURPOSE: To distinguish between contributions to dementia made by homocysteine, folate, B12 and antioxidant micronutrients. METHODS: This is a follow-up study of a sample reported in 2002. Homocysteine was measured at baseline in 201 individuals born in 1921 and without dementia at age 77 years and followed up to age 88 years. Baseline macro- and micronutrient status was estimated from BMI, the MONICA food frequency questionnaire, plasma folate, B12 and, in a subgroup (N = 173), plasma antioxidant micronutrients. Time to dementia onset during follow-up was compared between participants grouped by homocysteine concentration using Cox regression. Model 1 adjusted for age, sex, childhood IQ, education, socioeconomic deprivation, presence of heart disease, hypertension, plasma folate and B12. In model 2 plasma, antioxidants were added to these covariables. RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of about 5 years, there were 39 incident dementia cases among 201 participants. In model 1, being in the highest homocysteine group (>14 μmol/L) was associated with a 234 % increased risk (HR 3.34, 95 % CI 1.16-9.57) of any dementia. After inclusion of plasma antioxidants in model 2, there were 32 incident dementia cases from a subsample (N = 173). Homocysteine >14 μmol was associated with a 272 % increased dementia risk (HR = 3.72, 95 % CI 1.06-13.08). CONCLUSIONS: High homocysteine increases the risk of dementia. The association between tHcy and dementia is independent of plasma folate, B12 and antioxidant micronutrient status. SN - 1436-6215 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/23625136/Homocysteine_antioxidant_micronutrients_and_late_onset_dementia_ L2 - https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00394-013-0526-6 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -