Prevention of steroid-induced low bone mineral density in children with renal diseases: a systematic review.Nephrol Dial Transplant 2013; 28(8):2099-106ND
Children with renal diseases who are treated with glucocorticoids are at increased risk of developing osteoporosis and fractures. However, there is no common strategy for prevention of corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis. The present systematic review was performed to determine whether prevention of bone loss by calcium (Ca), vitamin D (vit D) and/or bisphosphonates is justified, safe and efficacious in children treated with steroids for various renal diseases.
Medline, Embase, Central were searched from 1961 up to 2012. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies concerning children ≤18 years with renal diseases requiring steroids were included.
The search strategy retrieved 2482 studies. Four RCTs including 166 patients and one observational study including 100 children met our eligibility criteria. One RCT and the observational study concerned treatment with Ca/vit D, one RCT with bisphosphonates and two RCTs with a combination of both therapies. All described a significant improvement in bone mineral density (BMD) in the treatment group compared with the control group.
Ca combined with vit D is recommended to prevent bone disease in children with renal diseases treated with steroids. Because of side effects, bisphosphonates should be reserved for the treatment of severe osteoporosis when Ca and/or vit D supplementation has failed.