Phytochemical profiles and antioxidant activity of adlay varieties.J Agric Food Chem. 2013 May 29; 61(21):5103-13.JA
Consumption of whole grains has been associated with reduced risk of developing major chronic diseases. These health benefits have been attributed in part to their unique phytochemicals. Little is known about the complete profiles of phytochemicals and antioxidant activities of different adlay varieties. The objectives of this study were to determine the phytochemicals profiles of the three adlay varieties, including both free and bound of total phenolics and total flavonoids, and to determine the total antioxidant activity of adlay. The free, bound, and total phenolic contents of adlay samples ranged from 31.23 to 45.19 mg of gallic acid equiv/100 g of sample, from 28.07 to 30.86 mg of gallic acid equiv/100 g of sample, and from 59.30 to 76.04 mg of gallic acid equiv/100 g of sample, respectively. On average, the bound phenolics contributed 45.3% of total phenolic content of the adlay varieties analyzed. The free, bound, and total flavonoid contents of adlay samples ranged from 6.21 to 18.24 mg of catechin equiv/100 g, from 18.68 to 35.27 mg of catechin equiv/100 g, and from 24.88 to 52.86 mg of catechin equiv/100 g, respectively. The average values of bound flavonoids contributed 71.1% of total flavonoids of the adlay varieties analyzed. The percentage contribution of flavonoid content to phenolic content of free, bound, and total ranged from 11.6 to 35.2%, from 50.5 to 66.8%, and from 24.6 to 50.5%. The free, bound, and total oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) values of adlay samples ranged from 231.9 to 316.6 mg of Trolox equiv/100 g, from 209.0 to 351.4 mg of Trolox equiv/100 g, and from 440.9 to 668.0 mg of Trolox equiv/100 g, respectively. The average ORAC values of bound phytochemicals contributed 48.1% of total antioxidant activity of the adlay varieties analyzed. The content of total polyphenol and the antioxidant capacity are obviously different among different species. Liaoning 5 adlay and Longyi 1 adlay are significantly better than Guizhou heigu adlay. The adlay extracts have obvious proliferate inhibition on human liver cancer cells, and substantially in the experimental concentration range, the adlay sample itself has no cytotoxicity. Knowing the phytochemical profiles and antioxidant activity of adlay gives insights to its potential application to promote health.