Cardioprotective effects of ω -3 PUFAs in chronic kidney disease.Biomed Res Int 2013; 2013:712949BR
The prevalence rate of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is increasing worldwide, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a main cause of death in patients with CKD. The high incidence of CVD in CKD patients is related to chronic inflammation, dyslipidemia, malnutrition, atherosclerosis, and vascular calcification. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω -3 PUFAs) have been shown to reduce the risk of CVD. In this paper, we review the beneficial effects of ω -3 PUFAs on CVD and the possible cardioprotective mechanisms of ω -3 PUFAs in CKD patients by determining the effect of ω -3 PUFAs in the general population. ω -3 PUFAs have several cardioprotective benefits, such as reducing inflammation, decreasing oxidative stress, inhibiting platelet activity, exerting antiarrhythmic effects, and improving triglyceride levels, in the general population and patients with CKD. Modifications of erythrocyte membrane fatty acid content, including an increased ω -3 index and decreased oleic acid, after ω -3 PUFAs supplementation are important changes related to CVD risk reduction in the general population and patients with CKD. Further basic and clinical studies are essential to confirm the effects of ω -3 PUFAs on vitamin D activation, vascular calcification prevention, cardiovascular events, and mortality in CKD patients.