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Mediterranean diet improves cognition: the PREDIMED-NAVARRA randomised trial.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

Previous observational studies reported beneficial effects of the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) on cognitive function, but results were inconsistent. We assessed the effect on cognition of a nutritional intervention using MedDiets in comparison with a low-fat control diet.

METHODS

We assessed 522 participants at high vascular risk (44.6% men, age 74.6 ± 5.7 years at cognitive evaluation) enrolled in a multicentre, randomised, primary prevention trial (PREDIMED), after a nutritional intervention comparing two MedDiets (supplemented with either extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) or mixed nuts) versus a low-fat control diet. Global cognitive performance was examined by Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Clock Drawing Test (CDT) after 6.5 years of nutritional intervention. Researchers who assessed the outcome were blinded to group assignment. We used general linear models to control for potential confounding.

RESULTS

After adjustment for sex, age, education, Apolipoprotein E genotype, family history of cognitive impairment/dementia, smoking, physical activity, body mass index, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, diabetes, alcohol and total energy intake, participants allocated to the MedDiet+EVOO showed higher mean MMSE and CDT scores with significant differences versus control (adjusted differences: +0.62 95% CI +0.18 to +1.05, p=0.005 for MMSE, and +0.51 95% CI +0.20 to +0.82, p=0.001 for CDT). The adjusted means of MMSE and CDT scores were also higher for participants allocated to the MedDiet+Nuts versus control (adjusted differences: +0.57 (95% CI +0.11 to +1.03), p=0.015 for MMSE and +0.33 (95% CI +0.003 to +0.67), p=0.048 for CDT). These results did not differ after controlling for incident depression.

CONCLUSIONS

An intervention with MedDiets enhanced with either EVOO or nuts appears to improve cognition compared with a low-fat diet. ISRCTN:35739639.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Medical School-Clinica, University of Navarra, , Pamplona, Spain.

    , , , , , , , ,

    Source

    MeSH

    Aged
    Aged, 80 and over
    Cardiovascular Diseases
    Cognition
    Cognitive Dysfunction
    Dementia
    Diet, Fat-Restricted
    Diet, Mediterranean
    Double-Blind Method
    Female
    Humans
    Incidence
    Male
    Middle Aged
    Neuropsychological Tests
    Nuts
    Olive Oil
    Plant Oils
    Primary Prevention
    Spain

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Randomized Controlled Trial
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    23670794

    Citation

    Martínez-Lapiscina, Elena H., et al. "Mediterranean Diet Improves Cognition: the PREDIMED-NAVARRA Randomised Trial." Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, vol. 84, no. 12, 2013, pp. 1318-25.
    Martínez-Lapiscina EH, Clavero P, Toledo E, et al. Mediterranean diet improves cognition: the PREDIMED-NAVARRA randomised trial. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2013;84(12):1318-25.
    Martínez-Lapiscina, E. H., Clavero, P., Toledo, E., Estruch, R., Salas-Salvadó, J., San Julián, B., ... Martinez-Gonzalez, M. Á. (2013). Mediterranean diet improves cognition: the PREDIMED-NAVARRA randomised trial. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, 84(12), pp. 1318-25. doi:10.1136/jnnp-2012-304792.
    Martínez-Lapiscina EH, et al. Mediterranean Diet Improves Cognition: the PREDIMED-NAVARRA Randomised Trial. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2013;84(12):1318-25. PubMed PMID: 23670794.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Mediterranean diet improves cognition: the PREDIMED-NAVARRA randomised trial. AU - Martínez-Lapiscina,Elena H, AU - Clavero,Pedro, AU - Toledo,Estefania, AU - Estruch,Ramon, AU - Salas-Salvadó,Jordi, AU - San Julián,Beatriz, AU - Sanchez-Tainta,Ana, AU - Ros,Emilio, AU - Valls-Pedret,Cinta, AU - Martinez-Gonzalez,Miguel Á, Y1 - 2013/05/13/ PY - 2013/5/15/entrez PY - 2013/5/15/pubmed PY - 2014/1/10/medline KW - COGNITION KW - COGNITIVE NEUROPSYCHOLOGY KW - RANDOMISED TRIALS SP - 1318 EP - 25 JF - Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry JO - J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry VL - 84 IS - 12 N2 - OBJECTIVE: Previous observational studies reported beneficial effects of the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) on cognitive function, but results were inconsistent. We assessed the effect on cognition of a nutritional intervention using MedDiets in comparison with a low-fat control diet. METHODS: We assessed 522 participants at high vascular risk (44.6% men, age 74.6 ± 5.7 years at cognitive evaluation) enrolled in a multicentre, randomised, primary prevention trial (PREDIMED), after a nutritional intervention comparing two MedDiets (supplemented with either extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) or mixed nuts) versus a low-fat control diet. Global cognitive performance was examined by Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Clock Drawing Test (CDT) after 6.5 years of nutritional intervention. Researchers who assessed the outcome were blinded to group assignment. We used general linear models to control for potential confounding. RESULTS: After adjustment for sex, age, education, Apolipoprotein E genotype, family history of cognitive impairment/dementia, smoking, physical activity, body mass index, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, diabetes, alcohol and total energy intake, participants allocated to the MedDiet+EVOO showed higher mean MMSE and CDT scores with significant differences versus control (adjusted differences: +0.62 95% CI +0.18 to +1.05, p=0.005 for MMSE, and +0.51 95% CI +0.20 to +0.82, p=0.001 for CDT). The adjusted means of MMSE and CDT scores were also higher for participants allocated to the MedDiet+Nuts versus control (adjusted differences: +0.57 (95% CI +0.11 to +1.03), p=0.015 for MMSE and +0.33 (95% CI +0.003 to +0.67), p=0.048 for CDT). These results did not differ after controlling for incident depression. CONCLUSIONS: An intervention with MedDiets enhanced with either EVOO or nuts appears to improve cognition compared with a low-fat diet. ISRCTN:35739639. SN - 1468-330X UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/23670794/Mediterranean_diet_improves_cognition:_the_PREDIMED_NAVARRA_randomised_trial_ L2 - http://jnnp.bmj.com/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=23670794 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -