Tags

Type your tag names separated by a space and hit enter

Optimal predator risk assessment by the sonar-jamming arctiine moth Bertholdia trigona.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(5):e63609.Plos

Abstract

Nearly all animals face a tradeoff between seeking food and mates and avoiding predation. Optimal escape theory holds that an animal confronted with a predator should only flee when benefits of flight (increased survival) outweigh the costs (energetic costs, lost foraging time, etc.). We propose a model for prey risk assessment based on the predator's stage of attack. Risk level should increase rapidly from when the predator detects the prey to when it commits to the attack. We tested this hypothesis using a predator--the echolocating bat--whose active biosonar reveals its stage of attack. We used a prey defense--clicking used for sonar jamming by the tiger moth Bertholdia trigona--that can be readily studied in the field and laboratory and is enacted simultaneously with evasive flight. We predicted that prey employ defenses soon after being detected and targeted, and that prey defensive thresholds discriminate between legitimate predatory threats and false threats where a nearby prey is attacked. Laboratory and field experiments using playbacks of ultrasound signals and naturally behaving bats, respectively, confirmed our predictions. Moths clicked soon after bats detected and targeted them. Also, B. trigona clicking thresholds closely matched predicted optimal thresholds for discriminating legitimate and false predator threats for bats using search and approach phase echolocation--the period when bats are searching for and assessing prey. To our knowledge, this is the first quantitative study to correlate the sensory stimuli that trigger defensive behaviors with measurements of signals provided by predators during natural attacks in the field. We propose theoretical models for explaining prey risk assessment depending on the availability of cues that reveal a predator's stage of attack.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Wake Forest University, Department of Biology, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, United States of America. corcaj8@wfu.eduNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

Language

eng

PubMed ID

23671686

Citation

Corcoran, Aaron J., et al. "Optimal Predator Risk Assessment By the Sonar-jamming Arctiine Moth Bertholdia Trigona." PloS One, vol. 8, no. 5, 2013, pp. e63609.
Corcoran AJ, Wagner RD, Conner WE. Optimal predator risk assessment by the sonar-jamming arctiine moth Bertholdia trigona. PLoS ONE. 2013;8(5):e63609.
Corcoran, A. J., Wagner, R. D., & Conner, W. E. (2013). Optimal predator risk assessment by the sonar-jamming arctiine moth Bertholdia trigona. PloS One, 8(5), e63609. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0063609
Corcoran AJ, Wagner RD, Conner WE. Optimal Predator Risk Assessment By the Sonar-jamming Arctiine Moth Bertholdia Trigona. PLoS ONE. 2013;8(5):e63609. PubMed PMID: 23671686.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Optimal predator risk assessment by the sonar-jamming arctiine moth Bertholdia trigona. AU - Corcoran,Aaron J, AU - Wagner,Ryan D, AU - Conner,William E, Y1 - 2013/05/06/ PY - 2013/01/31/received PY - 2013/04/06/accepted PY - 2013/5/15/entrez PY - 2013/5/15/pubmed PY - 2013/12/18/medline SP - e63609 EP - e63609 JF - PloS one JO - PLoS ONE VL - 8 IS - 5 N2 - Nearly all animals face a tradeoff between seeking food and mates and avoiding predation. Optimal escape theory holds that an animal confronted with a predator should only flee when benefits of flight (increased survival) outweigh the costs (energetic costs, lost foraging time, etc.). We propose a model for prey risk assessment based on the predator's stage of attack. Risk level should increase rapidly from when the predator detects the prey to when it commits to the attack. We tested this hypothesis using a predator--the echolocating bat--whose active biosonar reveals its stage of attack. We used a prey defense--clicking used for sonar jamming by the tiger moth Bertholdia trigona--that can be readily studied in the field and laboratory and is enacted simultaneously with evasive flight. We predicted that prey employ defenses soon after being detected and targeted, and that prey defensive thresholds discriminate between legitimate predatory threats and false threats where a nearby prey is attacked. Laboratory and field experiments using playbacks of ultrasound signals and naturally behaving bats, respectively, confirmed our predictions. Moths clicked soon after bats detected and targeted them. Also, B. trigona clicking thresholds closely matched predicted optimal thresholds for discriminating legitimate and false predator threats for bats using search and approach phase echolocation--the period when bats are searching for and assessing prey. To our knowledge, this is the first quantitative study to correlate the sensory stimuli that trigger defensive behaviors with measurements of signals provided by predators during natural attacks in the field. We propose theoretical models for explaining prey risk assessment depending on the availability of cues that reveal a predator's stage of attack. SN - 1932-6203 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/23671686/Optimal_predator_risk_assessment_by_the_sonar_jamming_arctiine_moth_Bertholdia_trigona_ L2 - http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0063609 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -