The role of β-adrenergic blockers in Parkinson's disease: possible genetic and cell-signaling mechanisms.Am J Alzheimers Dis Other Demen. 2013 Jun; 28(4):306-17.AJ
Genetic studies have identified numerous factors linking β-adrenergic blockade to Parkinson's disease (PD), including human leukocyte antigen genes, the renin-angiotensin system, poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase 1, nerve growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor, and the reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. β-Adrenergic blockade has also been implicated in PD via its effects on matrix metalloproteinases, mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways, prostaglandins, cyclooxygenase 2, and nitric oxide synthase. β-Adrenergic blockade may have a significant role in PD; therefore, the characterization of β-adrenergic blockade in patients with PD is needed.