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Virophages, polintons, and transpovirons: a complex evolutionary network of diverse selfish genetic elements with different reproduction strategies.
Virol J. 2013 May 23; 10:158.VJ

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Recent advances of genomics and metagenomics reveal remarkable diversity of viruses and other selfish genetic elements. In particular, giant viruses have been shown to possess their own mobilomes that include virophages, small viruses that parasitize on giant viruses of the Mimiviridae family, and transpovirons, distinct linear plasmids. One of the virophages known as the Mavirus, a parasite of the giant Cafeteria roenbergensis virus, shares several genes with large eukaryotic self-replicating transposon of the Polinton (Maverick) family, and it has been proposed that the polintons evolved from a Mavirus-like ancestor.

RESULTS

We performed a comprehensive phylogenomic analysis of the available genomes of virophages and traced the evolutionary connections between the virophages and other selfish genetic elements. The comparison of the gene composition and genome organization of the virophages reveals 6 conserved, core genes that are organized in partially conserved arrays. Phylogenetic analysis of those core virophage genes, for which a sufficient diversity of homologs outside the virophages was detected, including the maturation protease and the packaging ATPase, supports the monophyly of the virophages. The results of this analysis appear incompatible with the origin of polintons from a Mavirus-like agent but rather suggest that Mavirus evolved through recombination between a polinton and an unknown virus. Altogether, virophages, polintons, a distinct Tetrahymena transposable element Tlr1, transpovirons, adenoviruses, and some bacteriophages form a network of evolutionary relationships that is held together by overlapping sets of shared genes and appears to represent a distinct module in the vast total network of viruses and mobile elements.

CONCLUSIONS

The results of the phylogenomic analysis of the virophages and related genetic elements are compatible with the concept of network-like evolution of the virus world and emphasize multiple evolutionary connections between bona fide viruses and other classes of capsid-less mobile elements.

Authors+Show Affiliations

National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20894, USA.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

23701946

Citation

Yutin, Natalya, et al. "Virophages, Polintons, and Transpovirons: a Complex Evolutionary Network of Diverse Selfish Genetic Elements With Different Reproduction Strategies." Virology Journal, vol. 10, 2013, p. 158.
Yutin N, Raoult D, Koonin EV. Virophages, polintons, and transpovirons: a complex evolutionary network of diverse selfish genetic elements with different reproduction strategies. Virol J. 2013;10:158.
Yutin, N., Raoult, D., & Koonin, E. V. (2013). Virophages, polintons, and transpovirons: a complex evolutionary network of diverse selfish genetic elements with different reproduction strategies. Virology Journal, 10, 158. https://doi.org/10.1186/1743-422X-10-158
Yutin N, Raoult D, Koonin EV. Virophages, Polintons, and Transpovirons: a Complex Evolutionary Network of Diverse Selfish Genetic Elements With Different Reproduction Strategies. Virol J. 2013 May 23;10:158. PubMed PMID: 23701946.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Virophages, polintons, and transpovirons: a complex evolutionary network of diverse selfish genetic elements with different reproduction strategies. AU - Yutin,Natalya, AU - Raoult,Didier, AU - Koonin,Eugene V, Y1 - 2013/05/23/ PY - 2013/01/09/received PY - 2013/04/19/accepted PY - 2013/5/25/entrez PY - 2013/5/25/pubmed PY - 2014/1/23/medline SP - 158 EP - 158 JF - Virology journal JO - Virol J VL - 10 N2 - BACKGROUND: Recent advances of genomics and metagenomics reveal remarkable diversity of viruses and other selfish genetic elements. In particular, giant viruses have been shown to possess their own mobilomes that include virophages, small viruses that parasitize on giant viruses of the Mimiviridae family, and transpovirons, distinct linear plasmids. One of the virophages known as the Mavirus, a parasite of the giant Cafeteria roenbergensis virus, shares several genes with large eukaryotic self-replicating transposon of the Polinton (Maverick) family, and it has been proposed that the polintons evolved from a Mavirus-like ancestor. RESULTS: We performed a comprehensive phylogenomic analysis of the available genomes of virophages and traced the evolutionary connections between the virophages and other selfish genetic elements. The comparison of the gene composition and genome organization of the virophages reveals 6 conserved, core genes that are organized in partially conserved arrays. Phylogenetic analysis of those core virophage genes, for which a sufficient diversity of homologs outside the virophages was detected, including the maturation protease and the packaging ATPase, supports the monophyly of the virophages. The results of this analysis appear incompatible with the origin of polintons from a Mavirus-like agent but rather suggest that Mavirus evolved through recombination between a polinton and an unknown virus. Altogether, virophages, polintons, a distinct Tetrahymena transposable element Tlr1, transpovirons, adenoviruses, and some bacteriophages form a network of evolutionary relationships that is held together by overlapping sets of shared genes and appears to represent a distinct module in the vast total network of viruses and mobile elements. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the phylogenomic analysis of the virophages and related genetic elements are compatible with the concept of network-like evolution of the virus world and emphasize multiple evolutionary connections between bona fide viruses and other classes of capsid-less mobile elements. SN - 1743-422X UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/23701946/Virophages_polintons_and_transpovirons:_a_complex_evolutionary_network_of_diverse_selfish_genetic_elements_with_different_reproduction_strategies_ L2 - https://virologyj.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1743-422X-10-158 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -