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Body composition and reproductive function exert unique influences on indices of bone health in exercising women.
Bone. 2013 Sep; 56(1):91-100.BONE

Abstract

Reproductive function, metabolic hormones, and lean mass have been observed to influence bone metabolism and bone mass. It is unclear, however, if reproductive, metabolic and body composition factors play unique roles in the clinical measures of areal bone mineral density (aBMD) and bone geometry in exercising women. This study compares lumbar spine bone mineral apparent density (BMAD) and estimates of femoral neck cross-sectional moment of inertia (CSMI) and cross-sectional area (CSA) between exercising ovulatory (Ov) and amenorrheic (Amen) women. It also explores the respective roles of reproductive function, metabolic status, and body composition on aBMD, lumbar spine BMAD and femoral neck CSMI and CSA, which are surrogate measures of bone strength. Among exercising women aged 18-30 years, body composition, aBMD, and estimates of femoral neck CSMI and CSA were assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Lumbar spine BMAD was calculated from bone mineral content and area. Estrone-1-glucuronide (E1G) and pregnanediol glucuronide were measured in daily urine samples collected for one cycle or monitoring period. Fasting blood samples were collected for measurement of leptin and total triiodothyronine. Ov (n = 37) and Amen (n = 45) women aged 22.3 ± 0.5 years did not differ in body mass, body mass index, and lean mass; however, Ov women had significantly higher percent body fat than Amen women. Lumbar spine aBMD and BMAD were significantly lower in Amen women compared to Ov women (p < 0.001); however, femoral neck CSA and CSMI were not different between groups. E1G cycle mean and age of menarche were the strongest predictors of lumbar spine aBMD and BMAD, together explaining 25.5% and 22.7% of the variance, respectively. Lean mass was the strongest predictor of total hip and femoral neck aBMD as well as femoral neck CSMI and CSA, explaining 8.5-34.8% of the variance. Upon consideration of several potential osteogenic stimuli, reproductive function appears to play a key role in bone mass at a site composed of primarily trabecular bone. However, lean mass is one of the most influential predictors of bone mass and bone geometry at weight-bearing sites, such as the hip.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Penn State University, Department of Kinesiology, Women's Health and Exercise Laboratory, Noll Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802, USA. rjt199@psu.eduNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

Language

eng

PubMed ID

23702387

Citation

Mallinson, Rebecca J., et al. "Body Composition and Reproductive Function Exert Unique Influences On Indices of Bone Health in Exercising Women." Bone, vol. 56, no. 1, 2013, pp. 91-100.
Mallinson RJ, Williams NI, Hill BR, et al. Body composition and reproductive function exert unique influences on indices of bone health in exercising women. Bone. 2013;56(1):91-100.
Mallinson, R. J., Williams, N. I., Hill, B. R., & De Souza, M. J. (2013). Body composition and reproductive function exert unique influences on indices of bone health in exercising women. Bone, 56(1), 91-100. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bone.2013.05.008
Mallinson RJ, et al. Body Composition and Reproductive Function Exert Unique Influences On Indices of Bone Health in Exercising Women. Bone. 2013;56(1):91-100. PubMed PMID: 23702387.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Body composition and reproductive function exert unique influences on indices of bone health in exercising women. AU - Mallinson,Rebecca J, AU - Williams,Nancy I, AU - Hill,Brenna R, AU - De Souza,Mary Jane, Y1 - 2013/05/20/ PY - 2012/12/14/received PY - 2013/03/18/revised PY - 2013/05/09/accepted PY - 2013/5/25/entrez PY - 2013/5/25/pubmed PY - 2014/2/6/medline KW - AUC KW - Amen KW - BMAD KW - BMI KW - Bone geometry KW - Bone mineral density KW - CSA KW - CSMI KW - DXA KW - E1G KW - EAMD KW - Estrogen KW - Exercising women KW - FHA KW - HSA KW - IGF-1 KW - LH KW - Lean mass KW - Ov KW - PdG KW - TT3 KW - VO(2max) KW - aBMD KW - amenorrheic exercising women KW - area under the curve KW - areal bone mineral density KW - body mass index KW - bone mineral apparent density KW - cross-sectional area KW - cross-sectional moment of inertia KW - dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry KW - estrone-1-glucuronide KW - exercise-associated menstrual disturbances KW - functional hypothalamic amenorrhea KW - hip strength analysis KW - insulin-like growth-factor-1 KW - luteinizing hormone KW - maximal aerobic capacity KW - ovulatory exercising women KW - pQCT KW - peripheral quantitative computed tomography KW - pregnanediol glucuronide KW - total triiodothyronine SP - 91 EP - 100 JF - Bone JO - Bone VL - 56 IS - 1 N2 - Reproductive function, metabolic hormones, and lean mass have been observed to influence bone metabolism and bone mass. It is unclear, however, if reproductive, metabolic and body composition factors play unique roles in the clinical measures of areal bone mineral density (aBMD) and bone geometry in exercising women. This study compares lumbar spine bone mineral apparent density (BMAD) and estimates of femoral neck cross-sectional moment of inertia (CSMI) and cross-sectional area (CSA) between exercising ovulatory (Ov) and amenorrheic (Amen) women. It also explores the respective roles of reproductive function, metabolic status, and body composition on aBMD, lumbar spine BMAD and femoral neck CSMI and CSA, which are surrogate measures of bone strength. Among exercising women aged 18-30 years, body composition, aBMD, and estimates of femoral neck CSMI and CSA were assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Lumbar spine BMAD was calculated from bone mineral content and area. Estrone-1-glucuronide (E1G) and pregnanediol glucuronide were measured in daily urine samples collected for one cycle or monitoring period. Fasting blood samples were collected for measurement of leptin and total triiodothyronine. Ov (n = 37) and Amen (n = 45) women aged 22.3 ± 0.5 years did not differ in body mass, body mass index, and lean mass; however, Ov women had significantly higher percent body fat than Amen women. Lumbar spine aBMD and BMAD were significantly lower in Amen women compared to Ov women (p < 0.001); however, femoral neck CSA and CSMI were not different between groups. E1G cycle mean and age of menarche were the strongest predictors of lumbar spine aBMD and BMAD, together explaining 25.5% and 22.7% of the variance, respectively. Lean mass was the strongest predictor of total hip and femoral neck aBMD as well as femoral neck CSMI and CSA, explaining 8.5-34.8% of the variance. Upon consideration of several potential osteogenic stimuli, reproductive function appears to play a key role in bone mass at a site composed of primarily trabecular bone. However, lean mass is one of the most influential predictors of bone mass and bone geometry at weight-bearing sites, such as the hip. SN - 1873-2763 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/23702387/Body_composition_and_reproductive_function_exert_unique_influences_on_indices_of_bone_health_in_exercising_women_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S8756-3282(13)00190-7 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -