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Racial and ethnic disparities in influenza vaccinations among community pharmacy patients and non-community pharmacy respondents.
Res Social Adm Pharm. 2014 Jan-Feb; 10(1):126-40.RS

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Since 2009, pharmacists in all 50 states in the U.S. have been authorized to administer vaccinations.

OBJECTIVES

This study examined racial and ethnic disparities in the reported receipt of influenza vaccinations within the past year among noninstitutionalized community pharmacy patients and non-community pharmacy respondents.

METHODS

The 2009 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey was analyzed. The sample consisted of respondents aged 50 years or older, as per the 2009 recommendations by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the influenza vaccination rates and disparities in receiving influenza vaccinations within past year between non-Hispanic Whites (Whites), non-Hispanic Blacks (Blacks) and Hispanics. The influenza vaccination rates between community pharmacy patients and non-community pharmacy respondents were also examined.

RESULTS

Bivariate analyses found that among the community pharmacy patients, a greater proportion of Whites reported receiving influenza vaccinations compared to Blacks (60.9% vs. 49.1%; P < 0.0001) and Hispanics (60.9% vs. 51.7%; P < 0.0001). Among non-community pharmacy respondents, differences also were observed in reported influenza vaccination rates among Whites compared to Blacks (41.0% vs. 24.3%; P < 0.0001) and Hispanics (41.0% vs. 26.0%; P < 0.0001). Adjusted logistic regression analyses found significant racial disparities between Blacks and Whites in receiving influenza vaccinations within the past year among both community pharmacy patients (odds ratio [OR]: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.69-0.95) and non-community pharmacy respondents (OR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.46-0.94). Sociodemographic characteristics and health status accounted for the disparities between Hispanics and Whites. Overall, community pharmacy patients reported higher influenza vaccination rates compared to non-community pharmacy respondents (59.0% vs. 37.2%; P < 0.0001).

CONCLUSION

Although influenza vaccination rates were higher among community pharmacy patients, there were racial disparities in receiving influenza vaccinations among both community pharmacy patients and non-community pharmacy respondents. Increased emphasis on educational campaigns among pharmacists and their patients, especially minorities, may be needed.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Health Outcomes and Policy Research, Department of Clinical Pharmacy, University of Tennessee College of Pharmacy, 881 Madison Avenue, Memphis, TN 38163, USA. Electronic address: jwang26@uthsc.edu.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Comparative Study
Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

Language

eng

PubMed ID

23706653

Citation

Wang, Junling, et al. "Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Influenza Vaccinations Among Community Pharmacy Patients and Non-community Pharmacy Respondents." Research in Social & Administrative Pharmacy : RSAP, vol. 10, no. 1, 2014, pp. 126-40.
Wang J, Munshi KD, Hong SH. Racial and ethnic disparities in influenza vaccinations among community pharmacy patients and non-community pharmacy respondents. Res Social Adm Pharm. 2014;10(1):126-40.
Wang, J., Munshi, K. D., & Hong, S. H. (2014). Racial and ethnic disparities in influenza vaccinations among community pharmacy patients and non-community pharmacy respondents. Research in Social & Administrative Pharmacy : RSAP, 10(1), 126-40. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sapharm.2013.04.011
Wang J, Munshi KD, Hong SH. Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Influenza Vaccinations Among Community Pharmacy Patients and Non-community Pharmacy Respondents. Res Social Adm Pharm. 2014 Jan-Feb;10(1):126-40. PubMed PMID: 23706653.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Racial and ethnic disparities in influenza vaccinations among community pharmacy patients and non-community pharmacy respondents. AU - Wang,Junling, AU - Munshi,Kiraat D, AU - Hong,Song Hee, Y1 - 2013/05/23/ PY - 2012/11/17/received PY - 2013/04/15/revised PY - 2013/04/15/accepted PY - 2013/5/28/entrez PY - 2013/5/28/pubmed PY - 2014/8/30/medline KW - Community pharmacy KW - Immunization KW - Influenza vaccinations KW - Pharmacists KW - Racial ethnic disparities SP - 126 EP - 40 JF - Research in social & administrative pharmacy : RSAP JO - Res Social Adm Pharm VL - 10 IS - 1 N2 - BACKGROUND: Since 2009, pharmacists in all 50 states in the U.S. have been authorized to administer vaccinations. OBJECTIVES: This study examined racial and ethnic disparities in the reported receipt of influenza vaccinations within the past year among noninstitutionalized community pharmacy patients and non-community pharmacy respondents. METHODS: The 2009 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey was analyzed. The sample consisted of respondents aged 50 years or older, as per the 2009 recommendations by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the influenza vaccination rates and disparities in receiving influenza vaccinations within past year between non-Hispanic Whites (Whites), non-Hispanic Blacks (Blacks) and Hispanics. The influenza vaccination rates between community pharmacy patients and non-community pharmacy respondents were also examined. RESULTS: Bivariate analyses found that among the community pharmacy patients, a greater proportion of Whites reported receiving influenza vaccinations compared to Blacks (60.9% vs. 49.1%; P < 0.0001) and Hispanics (60.9% vs. 51.7%; P < 0.0001). Among non-community pharmacy respondents, differences also were observed in reported influenza vaccination rates among Whites compared to Blacks (41.0% vs. 24.3%; P < 0.0001) and Hispanics (41.0% vs. 26.0%; P < 0.0001). Adjusted logistic regression analyses found significant racial disparities between Blacks and Whites in receiving influenza vaccinations within the past year among both community pharmacy patients (odds ratio [OR]: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.69-0.95) and non-community pharmacy respondents (OR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.46-0.94). Sociodemographic characteristics and health status accounted for the disparities between Hispanics and Whites. Overall, community pharmacy patients reported higher influenza vaccination rates compared to non-community pharmacy respondents (59.0% vs. 37.2%; P < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: Although influenza vaccination rates were higher among community pharmacy patients, there were racial disparities in receiving influenza vaccinations among both community pharmacy patients and non-community pharmacy respondents. Increased emphasis on educational campaigns among pharmacists and their patients, especially minorities, may be needed. SN - 1934-8150 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/23706653/Racial_and_ethnic_disparities_in_influenza_vaccinations_among_community_pharmacy_patients_and_non_community_pharmacy_respondents_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1551-7411(13)00062-4 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -