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Psychosocial working conditions in a representative sample of working Australians 2001-2008: an analysis of changes in inequalities over time.

Abstract

BACKGROUND

A number of widely prevalent job stressors have been identified as modifiable risk factors for common mental and physical illnesses such as depression and cardiovascular disease, yet there has been relatively little study of population trends in exposure to job stressors over time. The aims of this paper were to assess: (1) overall time trends in job control and security and (2) whether disparities by sex, age, skill level and employment arrangement were changing over time in the Australian working population.

METHODS

Job control and security were measured in eight annual waves (2000-2008) from the Australian nationally-representative Household Income and Labour Dynamics of Australia panel survey (n=13 188 unique individuals for control and n=13 182 for security). Observed and model-predicted time trends were generated. Models were generated using population-averaged longitudinal linear regression, with year fitted categorically. Changes in disparities over time by sex, age group, skill level and employment arrangement were tested as interactions between each of these stratifying variables and time.

RESULTS

While significant disparities persisted for disadvantaged compared with advantaged groups, results suggested that inequalities in job control narrowed among young workers compared with older groups and for casual, fixed-term and self-employed compared with permanent workers. A slight narrowing of disparities over time in job security was noted for gender, age, employment arrangement and occupational skill level.

CONCLUSIONS

Despite the favourable findings of small reductions in disparities in job control and security, significant cross-sectional disparities persist. Policy and practice intervention to improve psychosocial working conditions for disadvantaged groups could reduce these persisting disparities and associated illness burdens.

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  • Publisher Full Text
  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    The McCaughey VicHealth Centre for Community Wellbeing, Melbourne School of Population & Global Health, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. alamonta@unimelb.edu.au

    , ,

    Source

    MeSH

    Adult
    Age Factors
    Australia
    Cross-Sectional Studies
    Employment
    Female
    Health Status Disparities
    Humans
    Longitudinal Studies
    Male
    Needs Assessment
    Occupational Health
    Occupations
    Psychology
    Risk Assessment
    Sampling Studies
    Sex Factors
    Socioeconomic Factors
    Stress, Psychological
    Workplace
    Young Adult

    Pub Type(s)

    Comparative Study
    Evaluation Studies
    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    23723298

    Citation

    LaMontagne, A D., et al. "Psychosocial Working Conditions in a Representative Sample of Working Australians 2001-2008: an Analysis of Changes in Inequalities Over Time." Occupational and Environmental Medicine, vol. 70, no. 9, 2013, pp. 639-47.
    LaMontagne AD, Krnjacki L, Kavanagh AM, et al. Psychosocial working conditions in a representative sample of working Australians 2001-2008: an analysis of changes in inequalities over time. Occup Environ Med. 2013;70(9):639-47.
    LaMontagne, A. D., Krnjacki, L., Kavanagh, A. M., & Bentley, R. (2013). Psychosocial working conditions in a representative sample of working Australians 2001-2008: an analysis of changes in inequalities over time. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 70(9), pp. 639-47. doi:10.1136/oemed-2012-101171.
    LaMontagne AD, et al. Psychosocial Working Conditions in a Representative Sample of Working Australians 2001-2008: an Analysis of Changes in Inequalities Over Time. Occup Environ Med. 2013;70(9):639-47. PubMed PMID: 23723298.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Psychosocial working conditions in a representative sample of working Australians 2001-2008: an analysis of changes in inequalities over time. AU - LaMontagne,A D, AU - Krnjacki,L, AU - Kavanagh,A M, AU - Bentley,R, Y1 - 2013/05/30/ PY - 2013/6/1/entrez PY - 2013/6/1/pubmed PY - 2013/10/30/medline KW - exposure surveillance KW - job control KW - job security KW - psychosocial stressors SP - 639 EP - 47 JF - Occupational and environmental medicine JO - Occup Environ Med VL - 70 IS - 9 N2 - BACKGROUND: A number of widely prevalent job stressors have been identified as modifiable risk factors for common mental and physical illnesses such as depression and cardiovascular disease, yet there has been relatively little study of population trends in exposure to job stressors over time. The aims of this paper were to assess: (1) overall time trends in job control and security and (2) whether disparities by sex, age, skill level and employment arrangement were changing over time in the Australian working population. METHODS: Job control and security were measured in eight annual waves (2000-2008) from the Australian nationally-representative Household Income and Labour Dynamics of Australia panel survey (n=13 188 unique individuals for control and n=13 182 for security). Observed and model-predicted time trends were generated. Models were generated using population-averaged longitudinal linear regression, with year fitted categorically. Changes in disparities over time by sex, age group, skill level and employment arrangement were tested as interactions between each of these stratifying variables and time. RESULTS: While significant disparities persisted for disadvantaged compared with advantaged groups, results suggested that inequalities in job control narrowed among young workers compared with older groups and for casual, fixed-term and self-employed compared with permanent workers. A slight narrowing of disparities over time in job security was noted for gender, age, employment arrangement and occupational skill level. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the favourable findings of small reductions in disparities in job control and security, significant cross-sectional disparities persist. Policy and practice intervention to improve psychosocial working conditions for disadvantaged groups could reduce these persisting disparities and associated illness burdens. SN - 1470-7926 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/23723298/Psychosocial_working_conditions_in_a_representative_sample_of_working_Australians_2001_2008:_an_analysis_of_changes_in_inequalities_over_time_ L2 - http://oem.bmj.com/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=23723298 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -