Evidence of the syndrome of rapid onset end-stage renal disease (SORO-ESRD) in the acute kidney injury (AKI) literature--preventable causes of AKI and SORO-ESRD--a call for re-engineering of nephrology practice paradigms.Ren Fail. 2013 Jul; 35(6):796-800.RF
We described the previously unrecognized syndrome of rapid-onset end-stage renal disease (SORO-ESRD) in 2010, in the journal Renal Failure, as distinct from the classic CKD-ESRD progression of a methodical, linear, time-dependent and predictable progression from CKD through CKD stages I-V, ending in ESRD requiring renal replacement therapy (RRT). It remains unclear to what extent this syndrome may have been identified in the past without acknowledging its uniqueness.
We reviewed AKI reports and ascertained cases of SORO-ESRD as defined by patients with a priori stable kidney function who subsequently exhibited unanticipated and irreversible ESRD requiring RRT following new AKI episodes.
Fifteen AKI reports demonstrating SORO-ESRD were analyzed. The reports span most regions of the world. The 15 studies with 20 to 1095 AKI patients each, mean age 39-65 years, published between 1975 and 2010, demonstrated SORO-ESRD rates from 1% to 85% of the AKI series. AKI was caused by hypovolemia/hypotension, infections/sepsis and exposure to nephrotoxics especially radiocontrast, NSAIDs, aminoglycosides and RAAS blocking agents, ACEIs and ARBs.
Irreversible ESRD following AKI, consistent with our recent description of a new and unrecognized syndrome has been sporadically reported in the AKI literature, without a clear mandate as a syndrome, potentially distinct from the classic ESRD. The contribution of SORO-ESRD to the global ESRD pandemic, the impact of SORO-ESRD on AV-Fistula planning, any differential behavior of SORO-ESRD versus classic ESRD in terms of mortality outcomes and any predisposing factors to SORO-ESRD as advanced age and nephrotoxic exposure all call for serious research study.