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Ultraviolet index and racial differences in prostate cancer incidence and mortality.
Cancer 2013; 119(17):3195-203C

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Studies suggest that low levels of vitamin D may be associated with prostate cancer, and darker skin reduces the body's ability to generate vitamin D from sunshine. The impact of sunshine on racial disparities in prostate cancer incidence and mortality is unknown.

METHODS

Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program database, the authors calculated age-adjusted prostate cancer incidence rates among black and white men aged ≥ 45 years by race and county between 2000 and 2009 (N = 906,381 men). Similarly, county-level prostate cancer mortality rates were calculated from the National Vital Statistics System (N = 288,874). These data were linked with the average monthly solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation index by county and data regarding health, wellness, and demographics. Multivariable regression analysis was used to assess whether increases in the UV index (in deciles) moderated the association between black race and the incidence and mortality of prostate cancer.

RESULTS

Compared with counties in the lowest UV index decile, prostate cancer incidence rates for white and black men were lower in counties with a higher UV index (all Ps ≤ 0.051). Incidence rates were higher for black men versus white men, but the difference by race was less for counties in the fourth to fifth UV index deciles versus those in the first decile (Ps ≤ 0.02). Mortality rates also were found to decrease with increasing UV index for white men (Ps ≤ 0.003), but increase for black men, and an unexplained increase in racial differences in mortality rates was observed with an increasing UV index.

CONCLUSIONS

Racial disparities in the incidence of prostate cancer were larger in some areas with less sunshine. Additional research should confirm the findings of the current study and assess whether optimizing vitamin D levels among black men can reduce disparities.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Population Health, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York; Department of Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

23744754

Citation

Taksler, Glen B., et al. "Ultraviolet Index and Racial Differences in Prostate Cancer Incidence and Mortality." Cancer, vol. 119, no. 17, 2013, pp. 3195-203.
Taksler GB, Cutler DM, Giovannucci E, et al. Ultraviolet index and racial differences in prostate cancer incidence and mortality. Cancer. 2013;119(17):3195-203.
Taksler, G. B., Cutler, D. M., Giovannucci, E., Smith, M. R., & Keating, N. L. (2013). Ultraviolet index and racial differences in prostate cancer incidence and mortality. Cancer, 119(17), pp. 3195-203. doi:10.1002/cncr.28127.
Taksler GB, et al. Ultraviolet Index and Racial Differences in Prostate Cancer Incidence and Mortality. Cancer. 2013 Sep 1;119(17):3195-203. PubMed PMID: 23744754.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Ultraviolet index and racial differences in prostate cancer incidence and mortality. AU - Taksler,Glen B, AU - Cutler,David M, AU - Giovannucci,Edward, AU - Smith,Matthew R, AU - Keating,Nancy L, Y1 - 2013/06/06/ PY - 2013/01/10/received PY - 2013/03/20/revised PY - 2013/03/21/accepted PY - 2013/6/8/entrez PY - 2013/6/8/pubmed PY - 2013/11/12/medline KW - disparities KW - prostate cancer KW - survival KW - vitamins SP - 3195 EP - 203 JF - Cancer JO - Cancer VL - 119 IS - 17 N2 - BACKGROUND: Studies suggest that low levels of vitamin D may be associated with prostate cancer, and darker skin reduces the body's ability to generate vitamin D from sunshine. The impact of sunshine on racial disparities in prostate cancer incidence and mortality is unknown. METHODS: Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program database, the authors calculated age-adjusted prostate cancer incidence rates among black and white men aged ≥ 45 years by race and county between 2000 and 2009 (N = 906,381 men). Similarly, county-level prostate cancer mortality rates were calculated from the National Vital Statistics System (N = 288,874). These data were linked with the average monthly solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation index by county and data regarding health, wellness, and demographics. Multivariable regression analysis was used to assess whether increases in the UV index (in deciles) moderated the association between black race and the incidence and mortality of prostate cancer. RESULTS: Compared with counties in the lowest UV index decile, prostate cancer incidence rates for white and black men were lower in counties with a higher UV index (all Ps ≤ 0.051). Incidence rates were higher for black men versus white men, but the difference by race was less for counties in the fourth to fifth UV index deciles versus those in the first decile (Ps ≤ 0.02). Mortality rates also were found to decrease with increasing UV index for white men (Ps ≤ 0.003), but increase for black men, and an unexplained increase in racial differences in mortality rates was observed with an increasing UV index. CONCLUSIONS: Racial disparities in the incidence of prostate cancer were larger in some areas with less sunshine. Additional research should confirm the findings of the current study and assess whether optimizing vitamin D levels among black men can reduce disparities. SN - 1097-0142 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/23744754/Ultraviolet_index_and_racial_differences_in_prostate_cancer_incidence_and_mortality_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1002/cncr.28127 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -