Rate and predictors of carotid artery intima media thickness progression in antiretroviral-naive HIV-infected and uninfected adults: a 48-week matched prospective cohort study.Antivir Ther 2013; 18(7):921-9AT
Carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) progresses faster in HIV-infected adults on antiretroviral therapy (ART) than the general population. It is unclear if the rate of progression is similarly faster in ART-naive, HIV-infected adults.
This was a 48-week prospective cohort study to compare change in CIMT and inflammation markers in ART-naive, HIV-infected adults in no immediate need of ART (HIV-positive/ART-naive) and age/sex/body mass index (BMI)-matched controls (HIV-negative).
A total of 85 HIV-positive/ART-naive and 45 HIV-negative participants were enrolled. In the HIV-positive/ART-naive group, median baseline CD4+ T-cell count and HIV-1 RNA were 535 cells/mm3 and 6,916 copies/ml. Baseline common carotid artery (CCA) and bulb CIMTs were similar between groups. Changes in CIMT to 48 weeks at both sites were not different within- or between-groups (median [IQR] change in HIV-positive/ART-naive versus HIV-negative CCA CIMT -0.0071 mm [-0.0267-0.0233] versus 0.0113 mm [-0.0117-0.0306]; P = 0.19 between-groups; and bulb CIMT 0.0017 mm [-0.0367-0.06167] versus 0.01 mm [-0.0383-0.0625]; P = 0.54). After adjustment for cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, change in CCA CIMT was greater in HIV-negative participants (-0.0046 versus 0.0177 mm for HIV-positive/ART-naive versus HIV-negative; P = 0.01). In HIV-positive/ART-naive, interleukin (IL)-6, soluble tumour necrosis factor-α receptor (sTNFR)-II, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 were higher at both time points and D-dimer was higher at week 48 (P < 0.01 for all). IL-6, sTNFR-I and D-dimer increased over 48 weeks in HIV-positive/ART-naive participants (P < 0.01 for all). In HIV-positive/ART-naive participants, independent predictors of greater change in CCA CIMT were higher BMI (P = 0.05) and family history of CVD (P < 0.01) and of greater change in bulb CIMT were higher sTNFR-I (P = 0.03) and higher diastolic blood pressure (P < 0.01).
In ART-naive HIV-infected adults at low risk of HIV disease progression and low cardiovascular risk, CIMT progression rate was similar to matched controls. In addition to traditional CVD risk factors, higher levels of sTNFR-I predicted greater bulb CIMT changes.