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Water and beverage consumption among children age 4-13y in the United States: analyses of 2005-2010 NHANES data.
Nutr J. 2013 Jun 19; 12:85.NJ

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Few studies have examined water consumption patterns among U.S. children. Additionally, recent data on total water consumption as it relates to the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) are lacking. This study evaluated the consumption of plain water (tap and bottled) and other beverages among US children by age group, gender, income-to-poverty ratio, and race/ethnicity. Comparisons were made to DRI values for water consumption from all sources.

METHODS

Data from two non-consecutive 24-hour recalls from 3 cycles of NHANES (2005-2006, 2007-2008 and 2009-2010) were used to assess water and beverage consumption among 4,766 children age 4-13y. Beverages were classified into 9 groups: water (tap and bottled), plain and flavored milk, 100% fruit juice, soda/soft drinks (regular and diet), fruit drinks, sports drinks, coffee, tea, and energy drinks. Total water intakes from plain water, beverages, and food were compared to DRIs for the U.S. Total water volume per 1,000 kcal was also examined.

RESULTS

Water and other beverages contributed 70-75% of dietary water, with 25-30% provided by moisture in foods, depending on age. Plain water, tap and bottled, contributed 25-30% of total dietary water. In general, tap water represented 60% of drinking water volume whereas bottled water represented 40%. Non-Hispanic white children consumed the most tap water, whereas Mexican-American children consumed the most bottled water. Plain water consumption (bottled and tap) tended to be associated with higher incomes. No group of U.S. children came close to satisfying the DRIs for water. At least 75% of children 4-8y, 87% of girls 9-13y, and 85% of boys 9-13y did not meet DRIs for total water intake. Water volume per 1,000 kcal, another criterion of adequate hydration, was 0.85-0.95 L/1,000 kcal, short of the desirable levels of 1.0-1.5 L/1,000 kcal.

CONCLUSIONS

Water intakes at below-recommended levels may be a cause for concern. Data on water and beverage intake for the population and by socio-demographic group provides useful information to target interventions for increasing water intake among children.

Authors

No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

23782914

Citation

Drewnowski, Adam, et al. "Water and Beverage Consumption Among Children Age 4-13y in the United States: Analyses of 2005-2010 NHANES Data." Nutrition Journal, vol. 12, 2013, p. 85.
Drewnowski A, Rehm CD, Constant F. Water and beverage consumption among children age 4-13y in the United States: analyses of 2005-2010 NHANES data. Nutr J. 2013;12:85.
Drewnowski, A., Rehm, C. D., & Constant, F. (2013). Water and beverage consumption among children age 4-13y in the United States: analyses of 2005-2010 NHANES data. Nutrition Journal, 12, 85. https://doi.org/10.1186/1475-2891-12-85
Drewnowski A, Rehm CD, Constant F. Water and Beverage Consumption Among Children Age 4-13y in the United States: Analyses of 2005-2010 NHANES Data. Nutr J. 2013 Jun 19;12:85. PubMed PMID: 23782914.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Water and beverage consumption among children age 4-13y in the United States: analyses of 2005-2010 NHANES data. AU - Drewnowski,Adam, AU - Rehm,Colin D, AU - Constant,Florence, Y1 - 2013/06/19/ PY - 2013/03/21/received PY - 2013/06/17/accepted PY - 2013/6/21/entrez PY - 2013/6/21/pubmed PY - 2015/3/31/medline SP - 85 EP - 85 JF - Nutrition journal JO - Nutr J VL - 12 N2 - BACKGROUND: Few studies have examined water consumption patterns among U.S. children. Additionally, recent data on total water consumption as it relates to the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) are lacking. This study evaluated the consumption of plain water (tap and bottled) and other beverages among US children by age group, gender, income-to-poverty ratio, and race/ethnicity. Comparisons were made to DRI values for water consumption from all sources. METHODS: Data from two non-consecutive 24-hour recalls from 3 cycles of NHANES (2005-2006, 2007-2008 and 2009-2010) were used to assess water and beverage consumption among 4,766 children age 4-13y. Beverages were classified into 9 groups: water (tap and bottled), plain and flavored milk, 100% fruit juice, soda/soft drinks (regular and diet), fruit drinks, sports drinks, coffee, tea, and energy drinks. Total water intakes from plain water, beverages, and food were compared to DRIs for the U.S. Total water volume per 1,000 kcal was also examined. RESULTS: Water and other beverages contributed 70-75% of dietary water, with 25-30% provided by moisture in foods, depending on age. Plain water, tap and bottled, contributed 25-30% of total dietary water. In general, tap water represented 60% of drinking water volume whereas bottled water represented 40%. Non-Hispanic white children consumed the most tap water, whereas Mexican-American children consumed the most bottled water. Plain water consumption (bottled and tap) tended to be associated with higher incomes. No group of U.S. children came close to satisfying the DRIs for water. At least 75% of children 4-8y, 87% of girls 9-13y, and 85% of boys 9-13y did not meet DRIs for total water intake. Water volume per 1,000 kcal, another criterion of adequate hydration, was 0.85-0.95 L/1,000 kcal, short of the desirable levels of 1.0-1.5 L/1,000 kcal. CONCLUSIONS: Water intakes at below-recommended levels may be a cause for concern. Data on water and beverage intake for the population and by socio-demographic group provides useful information to target interventions for increasing water intake among children. SN - 1475-2891 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/23782914/Water_and_beverage_consumption_among_children_age_4_13y_in_the_United_States:_analyses_of_2005_2010_NHANES_data_ L2 - https://nutritionj.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1475-2891-12-85 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -