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Biomarkers in Parkinson's disease (recent update).
Neurochem Int. 2013 Sep; 63(3):201-29.NI

Abstract

Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder mostly affecting the aging population over sixty. Cardinal symptoms including, tremors, muscle rigidity, drooping posture, drooling, walking difficulty, and autonomic symptoms appear when a significant number of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons are already destroyed. Hence we need early, sensitive, specific, and economical peripheral and/or central biomarker(s) for the differential diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of PD. These can be classified as clinical, biochemical, genetic, proteomic, and neuroimaging biomarkers. Novel discoveries of genetic as well as nongenetic biomarkers may be utilized for the personalized treatment of PD during preclinical (premotor) and clinical (motor) stages. Premotor biomarkers including hyper-echogenicity of substantia nigra, olfactory and autonomic dysfunction, depression, hyposmia, deafness, REM sleep disorder, and impulsive behavior may be noticed during preclinical stage. Neuroimaging biomarkers (PET, SPECT, MRI), and neuropsychological deficits can facilitate differential diagnosis. Single-cell profiling of dopaminergic neurons has identified pyridoxal kinase and lysosomal ATPase as biomarker genes for PD prognosis. Promising biomarkers include: fluid biomarkers, neuromelanin antibodies, pathological forms of α-Syn, DJ-1, amyloid β and tau in the CSF, patterns of gene expression, metabolomics, urate, as well as protein profiling in the blood and CSF samples. Reduced brain regional N-acetyl-aspartate is a biomarker for the in vivo assessment of neuronal loss using magnetic resonance spectroscopy and T2 relaxation time with MRI. To confirm PD diagnosis, the PET biomarkers include [(18)F]-DOPA for estimating dopaminergic neurotransmission, [(18)F]dG for mitochondrial bioenergetics, [(18)F]BMS for mitochondrial complex-1, [(11)C](R)-PK11195 for microglial activation, SPECT imaging with (123)Iflupane and βCIT for dopamine transporter, and urinary salsolinol and 8-hydroxy, 2-deoxyguanosine for neuronal loss. This brief review describes the merits and limitations of recently discovered biomarkers and proposes coenzyme Q10, mitochondrial ubiquinone-NADH oxidoreductase, melatonin, α-synculein index, Charnoly body, and metallothioneins as novel biomarkers to confirm PD diagnosis for early and effective treatment of PD.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Saint James School of Medicine, Bonaire, The Netherlands. Sharma@mail.sjsm.orgNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

23791710

Citation

Sharma, Sushil, et al. "Biomarkers in Parkinson's Disease (recent Update)." Neurochemistry International, vol. 63, no. 3, 2013, pp. 201-29.
Sharma S, Moon CS, Khogali A, et al. Biomarkers in Parkinson's disease (recent update). Neurochem Int. 2013;63(3):201-29.
Sharma, S., Moon, C. S., Khogali, A., Haidous, A., Chabenne, A., Ojo, C., Jelebinkov, M., Kurdi, Y., & Ebadi, M. (2013). Biomarkers in Parkinson's disease (recent update). Neurochemistry International, 63(3), 201-29. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuint.2013.06.005
Sharma S, et al. Biomarkers in Parkinson's Disease (recent Update). Neurochem Int. 2013;63(3):201-29. PubMed PMID: 23791710.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Biomarkers in Parkinson's disease (recent update). AU - Sharma,Sushil, AU - Moon,Carolyn Seungyoun, AU - Khogali,Azza, AU - Haidous,Ali, AU - Chabenne,Anthony, AU - Ojo,Comfort, AU - Jelebinkov,Miriana, AU - Kurdi,Yousef, AU - Ebadi,Manuchair, Y1 - 2013/06/19/ PY - 2013/03/07/received PY - 2013/05/31/revised PY - 2013/06/06/accepted PY - 2013/6/25/entrez PY - 2013/6/25/pubmed PY - 2014/3/8/medline KW - 1-methyl, 2-phenyl, 1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyridine KW - AD KW - ALS KW - ANS KW - Alpha-Syn(ko) KW - Alzheimer’s disease KW - Biomarker KW - CB KW - Charnoly body KW - DAT KW - DLB KW - Diagnosis KW - HD KW - Huntington’s disease KW - KRS KW - Kufor-Rakeb syndrome KW - LBs KW - Lewy body KW - MPTP KW - MRI KW - MRS KW - MS KW - MSA KW - MT(dko) KW - MT(trans) KW - MTs KW - PD KW - PET KW - PNS KW - Parkinson’s disease KW - SI KW - SPECT KW - amyotrophic lateral sclerosis KW - autonomic nervous system KW - dementia with Lewy body KW - dopamine transporter KW - magnetic resonance imaging KW - magnetic resonance spectroscopy KW - metallothionein double gene knockout KW - metallothionein transgenic KW - metallothioneins KW - multiple sclerosis KW - multiple system atrophy KW - peripheral nervous system KW - positron emission tomography KW - single photon emission tomography KW - syn knock out KW - α-Syn KW - α-Synculein index KW - α-synculein KW - α-synculein index SP - 201 EP - 29 JF - Neurochemistry international JO - Neurochem Int VL - 63 IS - 3 N2 - Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder mostly affecting the aging population over sixty. Cardinal symptoms including, tremors, muscle rigidity, drooping posture, drooling, walking difficulty, and autonomic symptoms appear when a significant number of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons are already destroyed. Hence we need early, sensitive, specific, and economical peripheral and/or central biomarker(s) for the differential diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of PD. These can be classified as clinical, biochemical, genetic, proteomic, and neuroimaging biomarkers. Novel discoveries of genetic as well as nongenetic biomarkers may be utilized for the personalized treatment of PD during preclinical (premotor) and clinical (motor) stages. Premotor biomarkers including hyper-echogenicity of substantia nigra, olfactory and autonomic dysfunction, depression, hyposmia, deafness, REM sleep disorder, and impulsive behavior may be noticed during preclinical stage. Neuroimaging biomarkers (PET, SPECT, MRI), and neuropsychological deficits can facilitate differential diagnosis. Single-cell profiling of dopaminergic neurons has identified pyridoxal kinase and lysosomal ATPase as biomarker genes for PD prognosis. Promising biomarkers include: fluid biomarkers, neuromelanin antibodies, pathological forms of α-Syn, DJ-1, amyloid β and tau in the CSF, patterns of gene expression, metabolomics, urate, as well as protein profiling in the blood and CSF samples. Reduced brain regional N-acetyl-aspartate is a biomarker for the in vivo assessment of neuronal loss using magnetic resonance spectroscopy and T2 relaxation time with MRI. To confirm PD diagnosis, the PET biomarkers include [(18)F]-DOPA for estimating dopaminergic neurotransmission, [(18)F]dG for mitochondrial bioenergetics, [(18)F]BMS for mitochondrial complex-1, [(11)C](R)-PK11195 for microglial activation, SPECT imaging with (123)Iflupane and βCIT for dopamine transporter, and urinary salsolinol and 8-hydroxy, 2-deoxyguanosine for neuronal loss. This brief review describes the merits and limitations of recently discovered biomarkers and proposes coenzyme Q10, mitochondrial ubiquinone-NADH oxidoreductase, melatonin, α-synculein index, Charnoly body, and metallothioneins as novel biomarkers to confirm PD diagnosis for early and effective treatment of PD. SN - 1872-9754 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/23791710/Biomarkers_in_Parkinson's_disease__recent_update__ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0197-0186(13)00167-8 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -