Oleanolic acid improves hepatic insulin resistance via antioxidant, hypolipidemic and anti-inflammatory effects.Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2013 Aug 25; 376(1-2):70-80.MC
Insulin resistance is the hallmark of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), which is closely related to disorder of lipid metabolism. The study was designed to evaluate the effects of oleanolic acid (OA) on hepatic insulin resistance and underlying mechanisms in Lep(db)(/)(db) obese diabetic mice. db/db Mice were administered with OA (20mg/kg/day, i.p.) for two weeks. OA reduced body weight, liver weight, and fat weight, and protected liver morphology and function. OA decreased fasting blood glucose, improved glucose and insulin tolerance, enhanced insulin signaling and inhibited gluconeogenesis. In livers, mitochondrial biogenesis, ultrastructure and function were influenced, accompanied by increased cellular and mitochondrial ROS production. OA inhibited all these changes, in which process Nrf2-GCLc mediated stabilization of mitochondrial glutathione pool may be involved. Moreover, OA decreased serum triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, and free fatty acids, increased serum HDL, and reduced hepatic lipid accumulation. Furthermore, inflammatory condition in db/db mice was improved by OA, as evidenced by decreased level of IL-1 β, IL-6, and TNFα in circulation and in liver. The evidence suggests that OA improves hepatic insulin resistance through inhibition of mitochondrial ROS, hypolipidemic and anti-inflammatory effects. The effectiveness of OA leads to interesting therapeutic perspectives.